Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PROTISTS PowerPoint Presentation

PROTISTS

617 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

PROTISTS

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. PROTISTS

  2. Protist classification • eukaryotic • mostly unicellular • The protist kingdom is a “dumping ground” –includes organisms that have exceptions to the many rules that scientists attempt to apply to them.

  3. Kingdom Protista Animal like -- Protozoa (zooplankton) Plant like-- Alga (phytoplankton) Fungi like -- Slime and Water Molds

  4. Protozoa • Heterotrophic (eat dead things or other organisms) • No cell walls • Are all capable of asexual reproduction usually by binary fission

  5. What distinguishes these? By locomotion

  6. Animal-like Protists-Protozoa Phylum Sarcodinian -move with pseudopods -ex. amoebas (& foraminifera and radiolaria) -One type of amoeba causes dysentery. Phylum Ciliphora - ciliates (cilia) -ex Paramecium, Blepharisma, Stentor & Vorticella. Phylum Zooflagellates - flagellates also called zoomastigina. Many cause disease in humans. -ex Trypanosoma which causes African s.s.; or Giardia Phylum Sporozoa -nonmotile, spore bearing, -all parasitic -ex. Plasmodium which causes malaria.

  7. Sarcodinian • Locomotion: • pseudopodia all • allows for great flexibility • Types (life styles) • Amoeba marine/terres/parasitic • Distinctive feature • Ameobiod movement • Cytoplasmic streaming

  8. Sarcodinian • Examples • Amoeba proteus • Entamoeba hixtolyca (causes amoebic dysentery) Nucleus Water Vacuole Food vacuole Pseudopodia Contractile Vacuole (not shown)

  9. Locomotion cilia Lifestyle most free living aquatic Distinctive feature two nuclei macro: boss micro: sex. repro Examples Paramecium Stentor, Vorticella Blepherisma Ciliaphorans

  10. Cilliates Oral groove

  11. Paramecium Conjugaton

  12. Zooflagellates(zoomastigote) • Locomotion • flagella • Lifestyle • most free-living • some parasitic • Distinctive features • most carried by vectors • from reservoir • Examples • Trypanosoma African s.s. • Giardia

  13. Vector • An organism • usually an arthropod or mollusca • Carries a pathogen • without being effected by it • Example : Bubonic plague • Flea carries the disease

  14. Flagellates

  15. Sporozoans(Apicomplexians) • Locomotion • none (flagella in some phases) • Lifestyle • all parasitic • Examples • Plasmodium vivax • causes Malaria • Toxoplasma gondii • causes toxoplasmosis

  16. Sporozoans

  17. Mosquito Facts • Mosquitoes are responsible for more human death than any other living creature. • Male mosquitoes do not bite. The real risk is from female mosquitoes which bite when in search of a blood meal to provide protein for their eggs. • Most adult mosquitoes live for about two weeks. • There are over 2,500 species of mosquitoes in the world. • The welts that appear after a mosquito leaves isn't from the bite - it's an allergic reaction to saliva the mosquito injected under the skin to prevent the blood from clotting • Mosquitoes like dark areas and will suck the juice out of plants in order to live - including tree leaves, grass, shrubs, etc

  18. AlgaePlant like Protists • Autotrophic (all have chlorophyll a) • Have cell wall • Alga are divided by pigments, cell wall types, and food storage compounds FYI • Thallus - body portion of an algae • Blue green algae are not protists at all-- they are Cyanobacteria, a moneran (lab) • Watch the green algae, because of their similarities with them, they are probably the ancestors of modern plants

  19. Unicellular Phylum Euglenophyta Euglena Phylum Chyrsophyta(Bacillariophyta) golden algae diatoms Phylum Pyrrophyta fire algae Dinoflagellates Multicellular PhylumRhodophyta red algae red seaweed. Phylum Phaeophyta brown algae kelp PhylumChlorophyta green algae Volvox Algae: Plant-like Protists

  20. Chlorophyta“green algae” • Pigments (like plants) • chl a,b • carotenoids • Cell wall = cellulose (like plants) • Storage = starch (like plants) • Ancestors of plants • Can be unicellular, filimentous, colonial, and multicellular • Motile - uni and colonial • Habitat – fresh water

  21. Algae Structure • Unicellular • single cell • phytoplankton • Filamentous • the cells divide but do not separate causing long strands • cells do not differentiate • Colonial • groups of cells acting in a coordinated manner • Multicellular • Some differentiation

  22. Example 1 of Chlorophyta“green algae” Chlamydomonos - Unicellular - Motile, Flagellated

  23. Example #2 of Chlorophyta“green algae” • Spirogyra • Filimentous - the cells divide but do not separate causing long strands -cells do not differentiate

  24. Example #3 of Chlorophyta“green algae” • Volvox , Pandorina • Colonial: Cells have different roles • flagellated cells • photosynthetic • gametocytes Cells not trully differentiated

  25. Example #4 of Chlorophyta“green algae” • Ulva (sea lettuce) • Multicellular • Reproduces by alternation of generations

  26. Phaeophyta“brown algae” Pigments • chl a,c • carotenoids • Fucoxanthin

  27. Phaeophyta“brown algae” • Examples • kelp parts of kelp • holdfast, stipe, • blade, • bladder • temperate seaweed • All multicellular • habitat • salt water • nonmotile* blade bladder stipe holdfast

  28. Rhodophyta“red algae” • pigments • chl a • carotenoids • Phycoblins • cell wall • CaCO3

  29. Rhodophyta“red algae” • examples • tropical • red seaweed • multicellular • habitat • salt water • nonmotile “agar”

  30. Pyrrophyta“fire algae”dinoflagellata • pigments • chl a,c • carotenoids • peridinum • cell wall • cellulose • food storage • starch

  31. Pyrrophyta“fire algae” • Examples: dinoflagellates • unicellular • habitat • fresh/salt • motile: • biflagellates

  32. PyrrophytaDinoflagellatesred tide cause “red tide”often phosphorescent Algal bloom Toxins

  33. Chrysophyta “golden algae” • Pigment • chl a,b • carotenoids • fucoxanthin • cell wall • silica cell wall • food storage • oil

  34. Chrysophyta “golden algae” • Example: diatoms • Unicellular (some colonial) • motile : raphe • habitat • salt/fresh water • reproduction • asexual • sexual FORM: Diatomaceous Earth Petroleum Deposits

  35. Euglenophyta • Pigment • chl a • chl b • carotenoids • Cell Wall • protein pellicle • Food Storage • polysaccharide

  36. Euglenophyta • Examples: • Euglena, • Astasia (can lose its chloroplasts and become heterotrophic) • all unicellular • motile: flagella • Habitat • fresh water eyespot

  37. Fungus-like protists • Heterotrophic with external digestion. • Absorptive nutrition • similar lifestyle as fungi • multicellular multinucleate 2 groups (based on cell type) • Water molds are composed of filaments of cells. • Phylum Oomycota • Slime molds are amoeba-like. • Phylum Myxomycota • Phylum Acrasiomycota

  38. Oomycetes • Known as • “water molds” • have cellulose in cell wall • ex water molds and downy mildews • have branching filaments called hyphae

  39. Oomycetes • Causes • one cause of “ick” grows on decaying aquatic life

  40. Oomycetes • Cell wall • cellulose • Body structure • branching filaments • few cell walls

  41. Oomycetes • Causes • potato blight • root, fruit, crown rot • puckeye rot

  42. Oomycetes • Causes • downy mildew • round worm parasite

  43. Chytridiomycota • Known as • Water Mold • Reproduction • flagellated sex cells • Probable ancestor of modern fungi Sprogyra with chytrid parasite

  44. Chytridiomycota • Habitat • aquatic • Cell wall • chitin like fungi • Body structure • long filaments • Mostly Unicellular • Mostly Parasites

  45. Myxomycota • Example is plasmodial slime molds • multinucleate

  46. Myxomycota • Habitat : Terrestrial • Body structure • One enormous cell (plasmodium) • many nuclei • covered in slime sheath • leaves a slime track

  47. Myxomycota • Life Cycle (reproduction) • spends most of life as a plasmodium • produces fruiting bodies with gametes • gametes behave like amoebas • two gametes meet--> produce new plasmodium

  48. Myxomycota • Life Cycle (reproduction) • spends most of life as a plasmodium • produces fruiting bodies with gametes • gametes behave like amoebas • two gametes meet--> produce new plasmodium