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Improving Classroom Questions in Mathematics. Title I Directors’ Meeting October 4, 2010 Morgantown. What does Socrates have to do with all of this? Wasn’t he forced to drink hemlock? Isn’t hemlock poisonous? .

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improving classroom questions in mathematics
Improving Classroom Questions in Mathematics

Title I Directors’ Meeting

October 4, 2010

Morgantown

how could asking questions lead to higher level thinking

What does Socrates have to do with all of this?

Wasn’t he forced to drink hemlock?

Isn’t hemlock poisonous?

How can a student learn by being asked a question? (If she can answer; she already knows – if not, why would asking the question help her learn?)

Who wants to know?

What does this have to do with mathematics?

When is the best

time to ask a

question?

How Could Asking Questions Lead to Higher-Level Thinking?

What might be the danger in using questioning as an instructional strategy – or is there any?

What makes a question a good question?

How soon should you expect an answer to a question?

How long is “too long” to wait for an answer?

John Ford, Title I Mathematics Coordinator

Could a teacher ask too many questions? How many would that be? How would someone know?

If there are “good” and “bad” questions, is it better to ask “bad” questions or to ask no questions?

slide3

There are 10 types of people in the world.

Those who understand binary and those who don’t.

An exercise in using questioning to teach about the binary number system based on the work of Rick Garlikov.

http://www.garlikov.com/Soc_Meth.html

slide4

How can a student learn by being asked a question? (If she can answer; she already knows – if not, why would asking the question help her learn?)

what was being asked
What Was Being Asked?

{

  • Content (yes/no) questions – one

right answer

  • “What are words made of?”
  • “How many letters in the English Alphabet?”
  • “How many numerals do we use?”
  • Questions with more than one

correct answer

  • “Who can write 10 another way?”
  • “Why do you think we have 10 numerals?”
  • “How can you show ‘55’ with your fingers?”

R

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A

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TH

I

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K

I

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G

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T

H R

E E

R C

A

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{

learning begins with questioning
Learning begins with Questioning

Why ask better questions?

“When teachers master the art of questioning, . . . they will add purpose and relevance to learning.”

- Chuska, Improving Classroom Questions, second edition, 2003, p. 13

  • Socrates 469 – 369 B.C.E.
  • Children’s Thinking - David Russell, 1956
  • Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

- Benjamin Bloom, 1956

  • Classroom Questions: What Kinds?

- Norris M. Sanders, 1966

  • Teaching Strategies and Cognitive Functioning in

Elementary School Children - Hilda Taba, 1966

  • Teacher Effectiveness Training

- Thomas Gordon, 1974

  • Involving Students in Questioning

- Francis P. Huskins, 1976

  • Improving Classroom Questions

- Kenneth R. Chuska, 1995 and 2003

planning lessons planning questions
Planning Lessons - Planning Questions
  • Integral to lesson planning

should be question planning

  • Questions should be

open-ended

  • Question selection should consider

students’ knowledge and allow for

personal input

six motivation strategies
Six Motivation Strategies
  • Ask Fewer Questions

Could a teacher ask too many questions? How many would that be? How would someone know?

six motivation strategies1
Six Motivation Strategies
  • Ask Fewer Questions
  • Provide Time for Answers

How soon should you expect an answer to a question?

How long is “too long” to wait for an answer?

six motivation strategies2
Six Motivation Strategies
  • Ask Fewer Questions
  • Provide Time for Answers
  • Pay Attention to the Student
six motivation strategies3
Six Motivation Strategies
  • Ask Fewer Questions
  • Provide Time for Answers
  • Pay Attention to the Student
  • Less Talk
six motivation strategies4
Six Motivation Strategies
  • Ask Fewer Questions
  • Provide Time for Answers
  • Pay Attention to the Student
  • Less Talk
  • Give Students Time to Write Answers
six motivation strategies5
Six Motivation Strategies

What does Socrates have to do with all of this?

Wasn’t he forced to drink hemlock?

Isn’t hemlock poisonous?

  • Ask Fewer Questions
  • Provide Time for Answers
  • Pay Attention to the Student
  • Less Talk
  • Give Students Time to Write Answers
  • Activate Background Knowledge

What might be the danger in using questioning as an instructional strategy – or is there any?

six motivation strategies6
Six Motivation Strategies
  • Ask Fewer Questions
  • Provide Time for Answers
  • Pay Attention to the Student
  • Less Talk
  • Give Students Time to Write Answers
  • Activate Background Knowledge
components for effective questioning
Components for Effective Questioning

What makes a question a good question?

components for effective questioning1
Components for Effective Questioning
  • An Issue, Problem or

Challenge

components for effective questioning2
Components for Effective Questioning
  • An Issue, Problem or

Challenge

  • Real-World Reference Points

Rigor /Relevance Framework

C D

Assimilation Adaptation

A B

Acquisition Application

components for effective questioning3
Components for Effective Questioning
  • An Issue, Problem or

Challenge

  • Real-World Reference Points
  • An Appropriate Approach
components for effective questioning4
Components for Effective Questioning
  • An Issue, Problem or

Challenge

  • Real-World Reference Points
  • An Appropriate Approach
  • A Reasoning Goal
designing questions
Designing Questions
  • What gives rise to the

question?

    • Origin, Purpose, or Reason
    • From what sources does the

question arise?

designing questions1
Designing Questions
  • What gives rise to the

question?

    • How is the question framed?
    • How does the teacher determine which questions and in what order?
    • What criteria should the question meet?

- How might students approach answering it?

designing questions2
Designing Questions
  • What gives rise to the

question?

    • How is the question framed?
    • What answer is anticipated?

- What kinds of responses might

students make?

- How will the teacher treat the student

responses?

- What follow-up questions might the

teacher or students ask?

when should a question be asked
When Should a Question Be Asked?

When is the best

time to ask a

question?

when should a question be asked1
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • To Motivate
  • To Promote Student Goal Setting
  • To Determine Readiness
  • To Stimulate Thinking
  • To Convey Purpose
  • To Create a Positive Learning Atmosphere
  • To Discern Student Interest or Knowledge
  • To Activate Background Knowledge

when should a question be asked2
When Should a Question Be Asked?

  • Before Study Begins
  • To Motivate
  • To Promote Student Goal Setting
  • To Determine Readiness
  • To Stimulate Thinking
  • To Convey Purpose
  • To Create a Positive Learning Atmosphere
  • To Discern Student Interest or Knowledge
  • To Activate Background Knowledge
when should a question be asked3
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • The “Big Four” Questions
  • What do you know you know about the topic?
  • What do you think you know about the topic?
  • What do you want to know?
  • What do you feel or believe about an issue or problem?
when should a question be asked4
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • Timing
  • - Two to three days prior to the beginning of a unit in the primary grades
  • - Two to three weeks in advance for grades four and up
when should a question be asked5
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • During the Lessons
  • - Analyzing and Critiquing
when should a question be asked6
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • During the Lessons
  • - Analyzing and Critiquing
  • - Anticipating Outcomes
when should a question be asked7
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • During the Lessons
  • - Analyzing and Critiquing
  • - Anticipating Outcomes
  • - Summarizing
when should a question be asked8
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • During the Lessons
  • - Analyzing and Critiquing
  • - Anticipating Outcomes
  • - Summarizing
  • - Detecting Bias and Examining
  • Viewpoints
when should a question be asked9
When Should a Question Be Asked?
  • Before Study Begins
  • During the Lessons
  • After the Lesson
    • To summarize
    • To reflect on what was learned
    • To draw conclusions
    • To synthesize information with former learning
    • To extend students’ learning
one last question
One Last Question

What does this have to do with mathematics?

slide34

An example from:

“Number Talks: Helping Children

Build Mental Math and Computational Strategies”

by Sherry Parrish

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slide35
Contact Information:John Ford Title I Mathematics Coordinatorjford@access.k12.wv.us(304) 558-7805 ext. 53349

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