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Fast, Inexpensive Content-Addressed Storage in Foundation

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  1. Fast, Inexpensive Content-Addressed Storage in Foundation Sean Rhea* Russ Cox, Alex Pesterev* Meraki, Inc. MIT CSAIL *Work done while at Intel Research, Berkeley.

  2. “Digital Dark Ages?” • Users increasingly store their most valuable data digitally • Wedding/baby photographs • Letters (now called email) • Diaries, scrapbooks, tax returns • Yet digital information remains especially vulnerable • Terry Kuny: “We are living in the midst of digital Dark Ages” • Hard drives crash • Removable media evolve (e.g., 5 ¼” floppies) • File formats become obsolete (e.g., WordStar, Lotus 1-2-3) • What will the world remember of the late 20th century?

  3. As a community, we’re not bad at storing important data over the long term. We’ve only just begun to think about how we’ll interpret that data 30 years from now.

  4. For Example… • Viewing an old PowerPoint presentation • Do we still have PowerPoint at all? And Windows? • Does the presentation use non-standard fonts/codecs? • Has some newer application overwritten a shared library with an incompatible version (“DLL Hell”)? • Not just a Microsoft problem: consider a web page • Even current IE/Safari/Firefox don’t agree on formatting • All kinds of plugins necessary: sound, video, Flash

  5. The Foundation Idea • Make daily backups of entire software stack • Archives users’ applications, OS, and configuration state • Don’t worry about identifying dependencies • Just save it all: “Every byte, every night” • To recover an obscure file, boot the relevant stack in an emulator • View file with the application that created it

  6. Foundation FAQ • Why preserve the entire disk? • Preserve software stack dependencies: preserve the data with the right application, libraries, and operating system as a single unit • Works for all applications, not just ones designed for preservation • Why daily images? • Want to preserve machine state as close as possible to last write of user’s data (i.e., preserve image before something changes) • Also allows recovery from user errors • Why emulate hardware? • Much better track record than emulating software • Software example: OpenOffice emulating Microsoft Word (yikes) • Hardware emulators available today for Amiga, PDP-11, Nintendo…

  7. I would love to give a talk about why Foundation is a great solution to the digital preservation problem. Really, though, I think it’s just a pretty good start. Instead, I’m going to talk about a fun problem we had to solve to make it work.

  8. Every Byte, Every Night?Indefinitely? Really? • Plan 9 did exactly that • Archive changed blocks every night to optical jukebox • Found that storage capacity grew faster than usage • Later with Content-Addressable Storage (Venti) • Automatically coalesces duplicate data to save space • Required multiple, high-speed disks for performance • Challenge for Foundation: provide similar storage efficiency on consumer hardware • “Time Machine model”: one external USB drive

  9. Talk Outline • Introduction • What is Foundation? • Review of Content-Addressed Storage (Venti) • Contributions • Making Cheap Content-Addressed Storage Fast • Avoiding Concerns over Hash Collisions • Related Work • Conclusions

  10. Venti Review • Plan 9 file system was two-level • Spinning storage, mostly a normal file system • Archival storage, optical write-once jukebox • Venti replaced optical jukebox • Still write-once • Chunks of data named by their SHA-1 hashes “Content-Addressable Storage (CAS)” • Automatically coalesces duplicate writes

  11. Venti Review Archival Process seen it before? update index Hash  Offset reads 4th block reads 2nd block reads 1st block 5:h( )1 6: 7: 8: 9: 0: 1: 2: 3:h( )0 4: h( )2 append hash to summary Summary h( ) ,h( ) ,h( ) , h( ) append to log no log write! Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  12. Venti Review Restore Process map hash to log offset Hash  Offset restore block 5:h( )1 6:h( )6 7:h( )5 8:h( )2 9: 0:h( )4 1: 2:h( )3 3:h( )0 4:h( )7 lookup hash of 1st block Crash! Summary h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ) read block from log Final step (not shown): archive summary in data log as well Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  13. Notes on Venti • The Good News: • CAS stores each block with particular contents only once • Changing any one block and re-archiving uses only one more block in archive • Adding a duplicate file from a different source uses no additional storage • The Bad News: • Synchronous, random reads to on-disk index

  14. Venti Review Archival Process seen it before? Hash  Offset reads 4th block 5:h( )1 6: 7: 8: 9: 0: 1: 2: 3:h( )0 4: h( )2 Summary h( ) ,h( ) ,h( ) Have to seek to the right bucket Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  15. Venti Review Restore Process map hash to log offset Hash  Offset 5:h( )1 6:h( )6 7:h( )5 8:h( )2 9: 0:h( )4 1: 2:h( )3 3:h( )0 4:h( )7 lookup hash of 1st block Summary h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ) Have to seek to the right bucket Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  16. Notes on Venti • The Good News: • CAS stores each block with particular contents only once • Changing any one block and re-archiving uses only one more block in archive • Adding a duplicate file from a different source uses no additional storage • The Bad News: • Synchronous, random reads to on-disk index • Best case, one-disk performance for 512-byte blocks: one 5 ms seek per 512 bytes archived = 100 kB/s • That’s 12 days to archive a 100 GB disk! • Larger blocks give better throughput, less sharing

  17. Notes on Venti (con’t.) • Venti’s solution: use 8 high-speed disks for index • Untennable in consumer space • Wears disks out pretty quickly, too • The “compare-by-hash” controversy: • Fear of hash collisions: two different blocks with same hash breaks Venti • May be very unlikely, but cost (data corruption) is huge Does CAS really require a cryptographically strong hash?

  18. Talk Outline • Introduction • What is Foundation? • Review of Content-Addressed Storage (Venti) • Contributions • Making Cheap Content-Addressed Storage Fast • Avoiding Concerns over Hash Collisions • Related Work • Conclusions

  19. Making Inexpensive CAS Fast • The problem: disk seeks • Secure hash randomizes an otherwise sequential disk-to-disk transfer • To reduce seeks, must reduce hash table lookups • When do hash table lookups occur? • When writing data, to determine if we’ve seen it before • When writing data, to update the index • When reading data, to map hashes to disk locations

  20. 2. Updating the Index • After appending a block to the data log, must update the index • Psuedorandom hash causes a seek

  21. Updating the Index Archival Process update index Hash  Offset reads 2nd block 5:h( )1 6: 7: 8: 9: 0: 1: 2: 3:h( )0 4: Summary h( ) Have to seek to the right bucket append to log Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  22. 2. Updating the Index • After appending a block to the data log, must update the index • Psuedorandom hash causes a seek • Easy to fix: use a write-back index cache • Store index writes in memory • Flush to disk sequentially in large batches • On crash, reconstruct index from the data log

  23. 3. Mapping Hashes to Disk Locations During Reads • To restore disk • Start with the list of original blocks’ hashes • Lookup each block in index • Read block from data log and restore to disk

  24. Restore Process map hash to log offset Hash  Offset 5:h( )1 6:h( )6 7:h( )5 8:h( )2 9: 0:h( )4 1: 2:h( )3 3:h( )0 4:h( )7 lookup hash of 1st block Summary h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ) Have to seek to the right bucket Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  25. 3. Mapping Hashes to Disk Locations During Reads • To restore disk • Start with the list of original blocks’ hashes • Lookup each block in index • Read block from data log and restore to disk • Observation: data log is mostly ordered • Duplicate blocks often occur as part of duplicate files

  26. Ordering in Data Log Hash  Offset 5:h( )1 6:h( )6 7:h( )5 8:h( )2 9: 0:h( )4 1: 2:h( )3 3:h( )0 4:h( )7 Summary h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ) Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  27. 3. Mapping Hashes to Disk Locations During Reads • To restore disk • Start with the list of original blocks’ hashes • Lookup each block in index • Read block from data log and restore to disk • Observation: data log is mostly ordered • Duplicate blocks often occur as part of duplicate files • Idea: add another index, ordered by log offset • Read-ahead in this index to eliminate future lookups in original index

  28. Index by Offset Restore Process Offset  Hash 0:h( ) 1:h( ) 2:h( ) 3:h( ) 4:h( ) 5:h( ) 6:h( ) 7:h( ) 8: 9: 10: 11: h( )0 h( )1 h( )2 h( )3 h( )4 map hash to log offset (seek!) Hash  Offset restore block 5:h( )1 6:h( )6 7:h( )5 8:h( )2 9: 0:h( )4 1: 2:h( )3 3:h( )0 4:h( )7 lookup hash of 2nd block lookup hash of 1st block Crash! Summary h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ), h( ) new index, sorted by offset read block from log (seek!) read block from log (no seek!) prefetch hashes for next few offsets from secondary index (seek!) find log offset in secondary index – no seek! Hash  Offset Data Log User’s Hard Drive RAM External USB Drive

  29. 1. Is a Block New, or Duplicate? • Optimization for reads also helps duplicate writes • Index misses on first duplicate block • Hits on subsequent blocks rewritten in same order • Doesn’t help for new data • Every lookup in primary index fails • Still suffer a seek for every new block

  30. 1. Is a Block New, or Duplicate? • Idea: use a Bloom filter to identify new blocks • Lossy representation of the primary index • Uses much less memory than index itself • For any given block, Bloom filter tells us: • It’s definitely new  append to log, update index • It might be duplicate  lookup in index • If it really is a duplicate, we get the prefetch benefit • Otherwise, called a “false positive” • Using enough memory keeps false positives at ~1%

  31. Results • Do these optimizations pay off? • Buffering index writes is an obvious win • Bloom filter is, too: removes 99% of seeks when writing new data • Both trade RAM for seeks • Benefit of secondary index less clear • If duplicate data comes in long sequences, it reduces index seeks to two per sequence • If duplicate data comes in little fragments, it doubles the number of index seeks • Need traces of real data to answer this question

  32. Results (con’t.) • Research group at MIT has been running Venti as its backup server for two years • We looked at 400 nightly snapshots • Simulated archiving and restoring these in both Venti and Foundation

  33. Talk Outline • Introduction • What is Foundation? • Review of Content-Addressed Storage (Venti) • Contributions • Making Cheap Content-Addressed Storage Fast • Avoiding Concerns over Hash Collisions • Related Work • Conclusions

  34. Eliminating “Compare by Hash” • Some worried that same SHA-1 doesn’t imply same contents (i.e., hash collisions are possible) • Even if very rare, consequences (corruption) too great • Stepping back a bit, CAS as a black box: • Give it a data block, get back an opaque ID • Give it an opaque ID, get back the data block • Do we care that the ID is a SHA-1 hash? • What if the “opaque” ID was just the block’s location in the data log?

  35. Using Locations As IDs • Pros + Reads require no index lookups at all + System can still find potential duplicates using hashing (with a weaker, faster hash function) • Cons • Need another mechanism to check integrity • Since hash untrusted, must compare suspected duplicates byte-by-byte • Others have claimed these byte-by-byte comparisons are a non-starter

  36. 2nd Disk Arm to the Rescue • Once we eliminate most index reads (via our previous optimizations), the backup disk is otherwise idle while backing up duplicate data • Can instead put it to work doing byte-by-byte comparisons of suspected duplicates

  37. Talk Outline • Introduction • What is Foundation? • Review of Content-Addressed Storage (Venti) • Contributions • Making Cheap Content-Addressed Storage Fast • Avoiding Concerns over Hash Collisions • Related Work • Conclusions

  38. Related Work • Apple Time Machine • Duplicates coalesced at file level via hard links • Netapp WAFL, ZFS • Copy-on-write coalesces blocks at the FS level • Misses duplicates that come into system separately • Data Domain Deduplication FS • Very similar to Foundation, in enterprise context • Depends on collision-freeness of hash function • Lots of other Content-Addressed Storage work • LBFS, SUNDR, Peabody

  39. Conclusions • Consumer-grade CAS works now • A single, external USB drive is enough • Just have to be crafty about avoiding seeks • Lots of uses other than preservation • E.g., inexpensive household backup server that automatically coalesces duplicate media collections • Doesn’t require a collision-free hash function