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  1. Caring for the Mind:Providing Reference Services for Mental Health Information Michelle Eberle NN/LM New England Region

  2. Objectives 1)Gain awareness of mental health issues 2)Learn to respond to challenging consumer health questions for mental health 2)Be informed of tools for collection development and mental health research

  3. Prevalence 1 in 4 adults suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year 4 of 10 leading causes of disability in the US are mental disorders Many people suffer from more than one at the same time Source: NIMH, The Numbers Count

  4. Classification • Current = DSM IV – TR • DSM V = to be released May 2013 History 1840 = single classification “idiocy” 1952 (DSM1); 1965 (DSM II); 1979 (DSM III); 1983 (DSM IV)

  5. DSM V – May 2013 Proposed changes: • Mental retardation to intellectual disability • Substance abuse and dependence to addiction related disorders • Creating a single diagnostic category for autistic spectrum disorders Source:

  6. Definitions Can you separate mental disorders from physical disorders? Need for a more accurate term that represents the body/mind connection (DSM IV – TR)

  7. Expressions Avoid expressions like: “a schizophrenic or an alcoholic” In favor of: “a person with schizophrenia” or “an individual with alcohol dependence”

  8. more about definitions • Mental health = Applies to everyone! • Mental health problems • Signs and symptoms of insufficient intensity and duration to meet criteria for a mental health disorder (DHHS) • Mental disorders • Characterized by abnormalities in cognition, emotion or mood or the highest integrative of behavior such as social interaction or planning future activities (DHHS) • Mental illness • Medical term applied to specific diagnosed conditions from the DSM IV TR

  9. Stigma • Misconceptions portrayed by news & media • Inaccurate linking of mental illness and violent behavior • Prompts subtle and overt prejudice, discrimination, fear, and stereotyping • Results in avoidance to work, socialize, and live with persons with mental illness • Impedes persons with mental illness to seek help • NAMI fights stigma with StigmaBusters! Sources: NAMI and Mental Health America

  10. “People with mental illlness enrich our lives” [NAMI] • Abraham Lincoln • Virginia Woolf • Ludwig van Beethoven • Robert Schumann • Leo Tolstoy • Tennessee Williams • Vincent Van Gogh • Isaac Newton • Ernest Hemingway • Sylvia Plath • Michelangelo • Winston Churchill • Vivian Lee • Patty Duke • Charles Dickens • Diane Sawyer

  11. Systems theory dynamic relationship between parts and the whole

  12. Factors • Physical • Social • Financial • Environmental • Sexual • Spiritual • Emotional • Intellectual • Occupational Systems theory = Relationship between components and whole

  13. Mental Health Literacy • Knowledge, beliefs and abilities that lead to the recognition, management and prevention of mental health problems. Benefits: • Prevention, early recognition & intervention, reducing stigma Source: Canadian Alliance on Mental Health and Illness,

  14. Source: University of North Carolina, Greensboro, Mental Health Literacy.

  15. Why is health literacy so critical? • Essential life skill • It is the bridge between knowledge and behavior.

  16. Information Seeking • 21 % of internet users have searched for information on depression, anxiety, stress or mental health issues • These are the 8th most commonly searched health topics • Health searching is the 3rd most popular online activity after email and shopping • E-patients on the rise! Source – Pew Internet, 2006

  17. Quality • Only ¼ of searchers look at the source or date of online health information. (Pew Report, 2006)

  18. Reference Best practices Respecting Confidentiality Active Listening Be empathetic and patient

  19. Emotional patrons Four step approach 1) STOP 2)BREATHE 3)REFLECT 4)CHOOSE Source: Spatz, M. Answering Consumer Health Questions. 2008

  20. Open ended questions • “What kind of information on …are you looking for? • Would you tell me more about …? • When you say…, what do you mean? • What do you already know about …?

  21. Resources YouCan Trust














  35. LactMed • Free online database with information on drugs and lactation • Over 500 drugs • Data mined from scientific literarue • Fully referenced • Links to PubMed citations • Breastfeeding links

  36. LactMed


  38. Mental health blogs lists top ten mental health blogs Many persons with mental illness are finding comfort and community in blogging and reading about their experience and knowledge of coping with chronic disease. Among these include: Finding Optimism Storied Mind Postpartum Progress Please keep in mind as with any web resources, use your ABCs of evaluation: Look at the accuracy, authority, bias, currency, coverage and user-friendliness of each site. A critical analysis of health information is necessary.

  39. Search tips • Keep in mind there may be more than one term for disorders • Be aware of comorbid disorders • Conditions may manifest in completely different ways • Though inaccurate, many resource use terms like disease, disorder, spectrum and syndrome interchangeable • Start out with a general site like MedlinePlus to get an overview of your topic Source: Anderson PF, Allee N. The Medical Encyclopedic Guide to Searching and Finding Health Info on the Web, 2004

  40. MedlinePlus search tips • For phrase searching, use quotes • “Asperger’s Syndrome” • Can search a specific site • Ex/ bullying • Not case sensitive • Will spell check • Can use Boolean searching ( OR, NOT ) • With +, can limit search term to exactly what you • With *, can search for variations of a word

  41. National Library of Medicine 19 million citations from the biomedical literature Use Advanced Search and Limits to customize your search

  42. Portal to search many NLM resources For the new searcher *Only NLM resource with meeting abstracts

  43. PILOTS Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress Largest database on PTSD

  44. Other databases • ERIC – for educational psychology • PsychInfo • PsychArticles • CINAHL • Social Work Abstracts • Social Sciences Citation Index • AGELINE

  45. Testing Mental Measurements Yearbook Educational Testing Service Tests and Measurements, U. of Texas Eric Clearinghouse in Assessment & Evaluation HaPI Many in print too!

  46. Collection development

  47. Bibliotherapy MeSH definition =“A supportive psychotherapy in which the patient is given carefully selected material to read”. Librarians often asked for such resources

  48. Community Resources? • Local public health dept mental health div. • Mental health libraries, public libraries • Support groups • Counseling • Alternative Therapy • Faith based organizations • Health hotlines – • Other?

  49. Professional Development Association of Mental Health Librarians Medical Library Association Mental Health SIG

  50. The Future of Mental Health The Science of Happiness “I realized that my profession was half-baked. It wasn’t enough for us to nullify disabling conditions and get to zero. We needed to ask, what are the enabling conditions that make human beings flourish? How do we get from zero to plus five?” Martin Seligman, Time, Feb 7, 2005