The interdependence of mental health and physical health
Download
1 / 57

The Interdependence of Mental Health and Physical Health - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 434 Views
  • Updated On :

The Interdependence of Mental Health and Physical Health . The case for creating integrated systems of care. James Yoe PhD; Elsie Freeman MD Maine Department of Health and Human Services SAMHSA National Grantee Conference Washington, DC June 19, 2009. WHO Global Burden of Disease 2000.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Interdependence of Mental Health and Physical Health' - LeeJohn


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The interdependence of mental health and physical health l.jpg
The Interdependence of Mental Health and Physical Health

The case for creating integrated

systems of care

James Yoe PhD; Elsie Freeman MD

Maine Department of Health and Human Services

SAMHSA National Grantee Conference

Washington, DC

June 19, 2009


Who global burden of disease 2000 l.jpg
WHO Global Burden of Disease2000

Chronic Diseases are a major cause of death and disability accounting for 25% of all disability worldwide

Arthritis – Musculoskeletal Diseases

Respiratory Diseases

Cardiovascular

Diabetes


Behavioral disorders account for even more disability than chronic medical conditions l.jpg
Behavioral Disorders Account for Even More Disability than Chronic Medical Conditions

WHO: 2000 Global Burden of Disease – In the developed world, behavioral disorders account for almost half of burden of disability

  • Mental Illnesses – 24%

  • Substance Use Disorders – 12%

  • Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementias – 8%


And in addition l.jpg
And In Addition…. Chronic Medical Conditions

  • Persons with mental ill health have higher rates of health risk (smoking, obesity, physical inactivity)

  • Persons with mental ill health have higher rates of diabetes, arthritis, asthma, heart disease

  • Persons with both chronic disease and mental illness have higher costs and poorer outcomes

Mental illnesses and chronic medical diseases interact:


Negative impact of depression on the outcome of cardiovascular disease l.jpg
Negative Chronic Medical ConditionsImpact of Depression on the Outcome of Cardiovascular Disease


Negative impact of chronic medical conditions on recovery from severe mental illness l.jpg
Negative Impact of Chronic Medical Conditions on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

  • On average persons with Serious Mental Illness die 25 years earlier than their age mates in the general population

  • Persons with SMI are not dying from their mental illness but from heart disease, diabetes and other medical conditions

  • Death is the ultimate impediment to recovery


The gaps disease and program specific structures are not person centered l.jpg
The Gaps – disease and program specific structures are not person centered

  • Most data and management systems focus on one or the other (and separate mental illness from substance abuse or from cognitive impairments)

  • Most systems of care (and regulation and reimbursement) focus on one only

  • Institutional systems (federal, state, academic) are also separate from each other


The goal l.jpg
The Goal person centered

The goal of a transformed health system that integrates mental health and physical health promotion should be to put the head and body back together so that policies and programs are “person-centered” or more holistic rather than our present system of carving out body parts (i.e., oral health, reproductive health, mental health etc.) or specific diseases (i.e., diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, etc.).


Maine data the impact of mental illness on physical health in the general population l.jpg

Maine Data: person centeredThe Impact of Mental Illness on Physical Health in the General Population

Expanding focus of SMHA, Medicaid and Public Health to mental health issues in the general population


Maine examples of integrated data analysis l.jpg
Maine Examples of Integrated Data Analysis person centered

  • Integrated analysis of Mental Health Modules in BRFSS

  • Integrated analysis of Medicaid data – the Maine/SC Emergency Room Usage study


Maine brfss mental illness modules l.jpg
Maine BRFSS Mental Illness Modules person centered

Frequent Mental Distress (FMD):≥ 14 days mental ill health 10.7%

Depression and Anxiety Module

  • Moderate/Severe Current Depression – 7.4%

  • Past history of depression – 20%

  • Past history anxiety disorder – 16%

    K-6 Module

  • Serious Psychological Distress (K6 ≥ 13) - 3.8%

  • Moderate Psychological Distress (K6 – 8-12) - 7.8%

  • History of Mental Health Treatment -15%

  • Miss Most Days Activities - 3.1% Miss Some Days - 6.8%

    No one definition includes all persons – overlapping,

    but non-identical populations


Conclusion from integrated analysis of maine brfss data l.jpg
Conclusion from Integrated Analysis of Maine BRFSS Data person centered

  • Mental ill health affects one in five Mainers, touching every social network

  • Mental ill health is associated with higher rates of health risk, chronic disease and poor self care in the general population

  • Attention to mental health issues critical for systems that target chronic disease


Maine dhhs south carolina er study l.jpg

Maine DHHS /South Carolina person centeredER Study

Integrated Analysis

Medicaid Services Data


Population studied l.jpg
Population Studied person centered

Medicaid only, 11 or 12 months eligibility, 19-64 years old

Group placement is dependent on whether there was any SA or MH diagnosis for any claim in the fiscal year

Four groups: MH, SA, MH & SA, no MH/SA

ER visit diagnoses are primary diagnosis given for the ER visit

ER utilization is # of visits per 1000 members in each specific group



Overall er usage increases with complexity of underlying population l.jpg
Overall ER Usage Increases with Complexity of Underlying Population

ER utilization rates 2 times higher for MH or SA only groups compared to Medicaid members with no behavioral health diagnoses

ER rates are 4 times higher for Co-morbid MH/SA


What is primary reason for going to the er l.jpg

What is primary reason Population

for going to the ER?




Er rates for medical dx increase with complexity of group members l.jpg
ER Rates for Medical Dx Increase with Complexity of Group Members

In both states, ER rates for medical reasons, compared to group with no underlying behavioral health diagnoses are:

1.9-1.7 times higher for MH group

1.8-2.1 times higher for SA group

3.5-4.0 times higher for the Co-occurring group.



The smallest percentage of overall er usage is for behavioral health l.jpg
The Smallest Percentage of Overall ER Usage is for Behavioral Health

Overall --- 5.2% Maine ER visits are for MH

3.3% South Carolina ER visits are for MH

Overall --- 2.1% Maine ER visits are for SA

1.0% South Carolina ER visits are for SA


Conclusions of er study l.jpg
Conclusions of ER Study Behavioral Health

  • Majority of ER visits are for injuries and medical conditions for all groups

  • Rates of ER utilization for medical issues and injuries are increased in populations with behavioral disorders

  • Effective care for these complex populations will depend on development of integrated systems of care


Persons with serious mental illness l.jpg

Persons with Behavioral HealthSerious Mental Illness

Impact on physical health is same as for persons with any mental illness in the general population, only more so


Biggest impediment to recovery l.jpg
Biggest Impediment to Recovery Behavioral Health

  • Compared to the general population, persons with serious mental illness on average lose 25 years of normal life span

  • People are dying, not from their schizophrenia, but from chronic medical conditions


Slide26 l.jpg

For Persons with SMI Behavioral Health

Chronic Health Conditions Are an

Expectation

Not an Exception


High rate of health disorders of persons with smi compared to non smi groups in maine medicaid 2004 l.jpg
High Rate of Health Disorders of Persons with SMI Compared to Non-SMI Groups in Maine Medicaid – 2004


Burden of medical illness maine medicaid 2004 l.jpg
Burden of Medical Illness: to Non-SMI Groups in Maine Medicaid – 2004Maine Medicaid 2004


Another approach brfss questions added to consumer satisfaction survey l.jpg
Another Approach: BRFSS Questions Added to Consumer Satisfaction Survey

  • Height and Weight (translated into Body Mass Index)

  • Have you ever been told by a doctor or health professional that you have…(coronary artery disease, heart attack, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol)?

  • Do you smoke cigarettes?

  • Now thinking about your physical health, which includes physical illness and injury, how many days during the past 30 days was your physical health not good?

  • Now thinking about your mental health, which includes stress, depression, and problems with emotions, how many days during the past 30 days was your mental health not good?

  • During the past 30 days, about how many days did poor physical or mental health keep you from doing usual activities, such as self-care, school, or recreation?

  • Would you say that your general health is…(excellent, very good, good, fair, poor)?

March 14-18, 2009


Health risk maine dig surveys age 18 64 years l.jpg
Health Risk Satisfaction SurveyMaine DIG Surveys (Age 18-64 Years)

March 14-18, 2009


Chronic health conditions maine dig surveys age 18 64 years l.jpg
Chronic Health Conditions Satisfaction SurveyMaine DIG Surveys (Age 18-64 Years)

** Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) = reported angina or heart attack

March 14-18, 2009


Metabolic risk l.jpg
Metabolic Risk Satisfaction Survey

Among persons with no diabetes: obesity, high blood pressure,

or high cholesterol

Percent Reporting 2 or More Risks

March 14-18. 2009


Slide33 l.jpg
Satisfaction Related to Physical Satisfaction SurveyHealth Status(…how many days during the past 30 days was your physical health not good?)

Percent Reporting

March 14-18, 2009


Costs to maine medicaid l.jpg

Costs to Maine Medicaid Satisfaction Survey

Persons with co-morbid medical and behavioral health disorders cost more both for medical and for psychiatric services


Medical expenditures for persons with mh sa conditions compared to general maine care 2002 l.jpg
Medical Expenditures for Persons with MH/SA Conditions Compared to General Maine Care 2002


Slide36 l.jpg
Impact of Increasing Number of Medical Co-morbidities on Maine Mental Health Expenditures for Persons with Serious Mental Illness


Summary of integrated analysis of maine data l.jpg
Summary of Integrated Analysis of Maine Data Maine Mental Health Expenditures for Persons with Serious Mental Illness

  • Mental ill health is associated with higher rates of chronic disease, poor outcome and higher medical costs in the general population

  • Persons with Serious Mental Illness have even higher rates of health risk, chronic disease, poor outcomes and higher costs


Bringing the data to key policy discussions l.jpg

Bringing The Data to Key Policy Discussions Maine Mental Health Expenditures for Persons with Serious Mental Illness

Governor’s Office

Commissioner of DHHS

Medicaid

Public Health

Mental Health


Maine state health plan support from the governor l.jpg
Maine State Health Plan: Maine Mental Health Expenditures for Persons with Serious Mental IllnessSupport from the Governor

  • Integration of mental health, public health and primary care

  • Ongoing surveillance of mental health issues in health surveillance

  • Person centered health care home

  • Health Info Net - interoperable electronic health information systems and a statewide health information exchange system


Dhhs policy changes l.jpg
DHHS Policy Changes Maine Mental Health Expenditures for Persons with Serious Mental Illness

  • Integration of previously separate agencies into one state health and human services agency, with an integrated management structure

  • Commissioner’s Policy on Integrated Care

  • DHHS Strategic Plan has as a focus integration of services to meet the complex needs of persons served


The maine patient centered medical home project l.jpg
The Maine Patient Centered Maine Mental Health Expenditures for Persons with Serious Mental IllnessMedical Home Project

  • Includes behavioral health provider on health care team

  • Care management to integrate medical and behavioral health issues

  • Patient self management support to include both medical and behavioral health issues


Integration of mental health into maine medicaid initiatives l.jpg
Integration of Mental Health into Maine Medicaid Initiatives Maine Mental Health Expenditures for Persons with Serious Mental Illness

  • Financial support for Medical Home Pilot

  • New policies for reimbursement of mental health providers in primary care settings

  • Medicaid funded medical care management system routinely screens for depression

  • Medical care managers to coordinate with mental health case managers for persons with SMI


Integration of mental health into maine public health initiatives l.jpg
Integration of Mental Health into Maine Public Health Initiatives

  • Ongoing inclusion and integrated analysis of mental health modules in BRFSS will permit county level and special population data for local needs assessment

  • Universal Web Based Health Screen includes depression screening, education and treatment resources


Office of adult mental health l.jpg
Office of Adult Mental Health Initiatives

  • Ongoing inclusion of BRFSS health questions in DIG Consumer Satisfaction Survey

  • Inclusion of health questions in launch of new Outcome Tool

  • Partnerships with Medicaid, Elder Services, Public Health to expand role of SMHA to include attention to mental health of whole population


December 2008 dhhs partners with local funder to launch smi health project l.jpg
December 2008 – DHHS Partners with Local Funder to Launch SMI Health Project

  • Link every consumer with SMI to a welcoming medical home

  • Coordinate medical and mental health care/case management

  • Track health issues in mental health system workflow

  • Develop consumer led health programming


Maine smi health project will l.jpg
Maine SMI Health Project Will… SMI Health Project

  • Develop information sharing systems between consumers, mental health and health care systems

  • Educate workforce/consumers: health literacy, health advocacy, chronic disease care, self management

  • Inform development of policy, contracts, regulation and system design at the state level


Integration making the case in maine l.jpg
Integration: SMI Health ProjectMaking the Case in Maine

  • Surveillance and data gathering are key first steps

  • Maine specific data is necessary to drive policy, programming and quality improvement

  • Analyses concurrently addresses physical and behavioral health issues


Dissemination is a critical part of surveillance l.jpg

Dissemination is a Critical Part of Surveillance SMI Health Project

Present , present, present

to many different audiences (not just a report that sits on a shelf)


Dissemination strategies one size reporting only useful to one size stakeholder l.jpg
Dissemination Strategies: SMI Health ProjectONE SIZE REPORTING ONLY USEFUL TO ONE SIZE STAKEHOLDER

Tailor presentation to each audience, showing how

attention to integration is not an add on but will

serve their specific aims

  • MH audience – how chronic disease impacts Recovery

  • Health audience –impact of mental illness on chronic disease and population health

  • Legislature – impact of siloed approach on total costs of care


Tie data and dissemination to state program and policy issues l.jpg

Tie Data and Dissemination to State Program and Policy Issues

Give non mental health partners concrete suggestions for what they can do to integrate mental health into their regular programming


Implications for health policy for general population l.jpg
Implications for Health Policy for General Population Issues

  • Many forms of mental illness are highly prevalent, under-recognized, less disabling than SMI but associated with poor health

  • Overall health depends on addressing both mental health and physical health in an integrated fashion

  • Publicly funded health systems should addresses mental illness in the general population

  • Start with depression


Implications for medicaid l.jpg
Implications for Medicaid Issues

Medicaid/SMHA populations have high degree of complexity. Needs span multiple traditional service sectors. Need for integrated approach.

Integration needed at all levels of the public system: surveillance, reimbursement, programming, workforce training


Implications for medicaid53 l.jpg
Implications for Medicaid Issues

  • Support screening and integrated treatment of depression in traditional health care settings

  • Support screening and treatment of health conditions among persons treated by specialty mental health


Implications for public health l.jpg
Implications for Public Health Issues

  • Support ongoing inclusion of MH modules in BRFSS

  • Develop depression screening and awareness tools linked to health risk and chronic disease programming

  • Include mental health objectives in Healthy Maine 2020


Implications for smha l.jpg
Implications for SMHA Issues

  • Expand programming to SMI population to include attention to health and wellness

  • Expand role of SMHA to include persons with less disabling forms of Mental Illness

  • Partner with state Public Health and Medicaid to support integration of mental health into health policy and programming


Attending to health and wellness for persons with smi l.jpg
Attending to health and wellness for persons with SMI Issues

  • Start with surveillance – if you don’t measure it, you won’t manage it

  • Keep it simple – History of smoking, alcohol use, major chronic diseases

  • Track BMI, Blood Pressure, glucose and lipids

  • Integrate health surveillance into current activities: ISP development, med management, consumer survey, outcome measures


Slide57 l.jpg

Elsie Freeman, MD, MPH Issues

Medical Director, Behavioral Health

DHHS Office of Quality Improvement Services

E-mail: elsie.freeman@maine.gov

Jay Yoe, PhD

Director

DHHS Office of Quality Improvement Services

E-mail: jay.yoe@maine.gov