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Implementing Relational Contracting and Joint Risk Management - survey results from an ongoing Ph.D. research project at HKU. Mr. M. Motiar Rahman - Ph.D. Researcher Dr. Mohan M. Kumaraswamy - Supervisor Prof. Steve Rowlinson - CIB W92 Co-ordinator. The University of Hong Kong.

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slide1

Implementing Relational Contracting and Joint Risk Management -survey results from an ongoing Ph.D. research project at HKU

Mr. M. Motiar Rahman - Ph.D. Researcher

Dr. Mohan M. Kumaraswamy - Supervisor

Prof. Steve Rowlinson - CIB W92 Co-ordinator

The University of Hong Kong

relational contracting rc 1
Relational Contracting (RC) (1)
  • ‘Contract’ may be treated as
    • promise of doing something in future
    • projection of exchange into the future
    • present communication of a commitment to a future event
  • But ‘present promise’ affects future
    • by limiting choices that would be available during contract execution
  • All future events can not be perceived or quantified due to uncertainty and complexity
    • contracts should be flexible – to adjust for future events
    • in order to effectively address the uncertainties, as and when they eventualize
relational contracting rc 2
Relational Contracting (RC) (2)
  • RC considers ‘contract’ as
    • a process of projecting exchange in the future
    • relationships among the parties
    • relationships of inter-related past, present and future
  • Parties do not always follow the legal mechanism offered by the written contracts
    • the relationship itself develops obligations
  • RC allows
    • mutual future planning
    • sharing of both benefits and burden
  • Possibility of problems is anticipated as normal part of the relationship
relational contracting rc 3
Relational Contracting (RC) (3)
  • Problems are dealt with by
    • cooperation, restorational techniques, and adjustment processes
  • These processes are
    • transaction-specific and ongoing-administrative kind
    • not a single generalised process
  • RC thus provides
    • the means to sustain ongoing relations
    • an environment of business fraternity
rc in practice
RC in Practice
  • RC principles underpin
    • partnering, alliancing, joint venturing, relationship contracting
    • other collaborative working arrangements
    • better risk sharing mechanisms
  • Present construction organisations follow
    • both legal and non-legal mechanisms in contracting
  • e.g: a partnering charter is not legally binding:
  • if there is any problem - revert to original contract; although ‘partnering contracts’ are also emerging
risk management 1
Risk Management (1)
  • Risks are

- project-specific

    • allocated through contract conditions
  • Not all risks are foreseeable
    • nature and extent of risks may change, new risks may emerge, existing risks may change in importance
    • some risks may require joint efforts of all contracting parties for their efficient management
risk management 2
Risk Management (2)
  • Target of risk management should be
    • to minimize the total cost of risks
    • not the cost to each party separately
  • Unforeseen risks need to be managed through a Joint Risk Management (JRM) strategy
    • as and when they eventualize
    • under flexible contract conditions
    • team efforts - if necessary
extracts from the hku phd research survey on risk allocation
Extracts from the HKU PhD Research Survey on “Risk Allocation”
  • This was the 1st Survey – to identify industry perceptions
  • Two questions: on perceptions of 41 risk items
    • present risk allocation (owner & contractor)
    • preferred allocation (owner, contractor, JRM)
  • 47 responses - av. experience 21.2 years
    • 20 from Hong Kong, 25 from China, 2 others
    • FIDIC 25, GCC 8, General 9, Others 5
    • Consultants 14, Owners 15, Academics 10, Contractors 8, (grouped as per organisations)
    • Academics 10, Engineering 18, Managerial 19
slide9

Percentage of risk that should be jointly managed

Number of risks (out of 41, used in the survey) in each category

Total

Working organization

CSL

CTR

OWN

Nature of present job

ACA

ENGG

MGR

0

0

0

7

1

0

0

1

1 - 10

12

15

6

13

4

18

10

11 - 20

14

13

17

8

20

12

12

21 - 30

9

9

5

8

13

6

8

31 - 40

6

3

4

6

3

5

7

41 - 50

1

1

3

1

1

51 - 60

1

1

2

More than 60

1

Total No.:

41

41

41

41

41

41

41

Table 1: Average Perceptions on JRM based on groupings of 'working organization' and 'nature of present job'

joint risk management jrm
Joint Risk Management (JRM)
  • Total sample
    • all 41 risk items were recommended for JRM
    • 29 risk items need 11-50% JRM
  • Contractors: 28 risk items need 11-60% JRM
  • Owners:
    • 26 risk items need JRM of more than 10%
    • 2 risk items need JRM of more than 50%
    • greater number of risks for JRM in percentage range slots of 21-30, 31-40 and 41-50 than consultants, contractors and academics
  • Managers are more enthusiastic than Engineers
slide11

% of risk that should be jointly managed

Number of risks (out of 41 used in the survey) in each category

Total

FIDIC

GCC

General

0

0

0

0

1

1 - 10

12

20

9

5

11 - 20

14

14

5

11

21- 30

9

5

10

7

31 - 40

6

2

7

11

41 - 50

4

4

51 - 60

5

1

More than 60

1

1

Total No:

41

41

41

41

Table 2: Summary of average perceptions on JRM based on contract categories (i.e. standard conditions of contract)

extracts from the hku phd research survey on implementing rc and jrm
Extracts from the HKU PhD Research Survey on Implementing RC and JRM
  • This 2nd Survey aimed to find ways to mobilize the industry enthusiasm identified in the 1st survey
  • Responses and respondents
    • 92 from 17 countries, 2/3 from Hong Kong
    • at least a mid-level managerial position
    • 65% worked in more than one contracting party
    • 23 from a contractor company in Hong Kong
    • 10 years average experience at present organisation
    • Over 20 years average total experience
  • Respondents were requested to add more options
  • Only extracts of quantitative survey results follow
slide13

Notes: (1) 79 responses, (2) scores are out of 10

Table 3: Importance of factors for selecting consultant

slide14

Notes: (1) 80 responses, (2) scores are out of 10

Table 4: Importance of factors for selecting contractor

slide15

Notes: (1) 77 responses, (2) scores are out of 10

Table 5: Importance of factors for selecting subcontractor

slide16

Notes: (1) 79 responses, (2) scores are out of 10

Table 6: Importance of factors for selecting supplier

slide17

Notes: (1) 80 responses, (2) scores are out of 10

Table 7: Importance of factors for selecting owner

importance of different selection criteria for project partners general
Importance of Different Selection Criteria for Project Partners - General
  • Contractors should have all conducive criteria for RC approaches
    • score of least important factor is 7.83
  • ‘Joint approach’ and ‘responsibility sharing’ related factors are seen to be as the main criteria for selecting different parties
  • Contractors should lead the ‘project team’
specifics
Specifics
  • Consultant
    • technical capabilities, previous experience, creativity/ innovation
  • Subcontractor
    • time, performance and safety, quality, adequate resources, pricing levels
  • Suppliers
    • quality, time, pricing levels
  • Owner
    • financial strength, long term commitment
slide20

Note: Figures in parentheses ( ) are number of responses

Table 8: Perceptions on Who should be brought in at

Which stage of RC oriented approach for JRM

slide21

Items/ Factors

Average

STDV

Mutual trust

9.10

1.25

Open communication among the parties

8.85

1.29

Understanding each-other's objectives

8.76

1.32

Equitable and clear allocation of foreseeable and quantifiable risks

8.69

1.58

Attitude of the project participants

8.57

1.50

Readiness to compromise on unclear issues

8.28

1.26

Awareness of risks and rewards

8.24

1.35

Effective coordination

7.94

1.54

Collective responsibility, instead of personal responsibility

7.87

1.72

Alignment of objectives

7.83

1.86

Professional ethics

7.79

1.84

Agreed process for dispute resolution

7.69

1.72

Frequent formal and informal meetings

7.55

1.55

Developing a partnering culture, first, within the organisation

7.28

1.87

Agreed mechanism for performance appraisal

7.20

1.82

Compatible organisational cultures

6.94

1.91

Pioneering role of the owner/ client

6.91

2.08

Possibility of future work

6.91

2.03

Partnering workshop

6.77

1.86

Partnering experience

6.75

1.86

Role of partnering facilitator

6.52

2.00

Legal implications

6.29

2.02

Cost of implementing partnering

5.69

2.25

Jointly organised social/ cultural activities (e.g. karaoke, sports)

5.17

2.25

Traditional owner, contractor, subcontractor hierarchy

4.05

2.20

Table 9: Importance of factors for developing a successful

Relational Contract for implementing JRM

slide22

Factors for RC and JRM- Specifics

  • ‘Mutual trust’ is the most important factor; while ‘traditional owner, contractor, subcontractor hierarchy’ is the least important factor
  • ‘Professional ethics’ is more important than ‘possibility of future work’ and ‘partnering experience’
  • ‘Trust’ and ‘responsibility’ related factors are more important than ‘legal’ and ‘monetary’ issues
  • ‘Developing partnering culture’ is more important than ‘role of partnering facilitator’
slide23

Note: Figures in parentheses ( ) are number of responses

Table 10: Perceptions on dealing with risks that are not foreseeable and quantifiable at planning stage

slide24

Note: Figures in parentheses ( ) are number of responses

Table 11: Perceptions on dealing with risks that are clearly seen and quantifiable, but need joint efforts

slide25

Note: Figures in parentheses ( ) are number of responses

Table 12: Perceptions on dealing with risks that unforeseeably change in nature during project progress

concluding observations
Concluding Observations
  • Worldwide growing enthusiasm towards RC and JRM
  • Owners’ should initiate the ‘new’ approach
    • they effectively control project organisation and contract content, and select other parties
    • project specific approaches
  • Knowledgeable project partner
    • learn and understand the approach and it’s procedure
    • identify clearly what each party needs
    • to realise that 'they need to pay properly for what they need’ and ‘need to work properly for the proper pay’
future research
Future Research
  • A Model will be formulated for JRM
    • to provide a basic Framework for Owners/Clients to target JRM
    • through project-specific RC approaches