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Objective: • Identify and prepare pastries
4 Main Pie Ingredients • Flour = structure • Salt = flavor • Fat = tenderness • Liquid = holds dough together + moisture
Pastry Dough Ingredients • Differences in fats: • Taste and flavor • Lard or Shortening = more tender • Oil = harder to handle i.e. crumbly • Differences in flours: • All-purpose – harder wheat, more gluten • Cake flour – softer wheat, less gluten
Understanding Pie Dough • Pie crusts are made from four basic ingredients: flour, fat, salt, and water • Flour gives structure to the pastry • Fat makes pie tough because it causes gluten development in flour • Fat adds flakiness because it separates the layers of gluten • Oil and margarine are the two most common fats used to make pie crust • Oil makes pie crust mealy and tender rather than flaky and tender • Water provides moisture to help gluten form and produces steam for flakiness
Understanding Pie Dough • Salt adds much more to pie crust than other flavorings • Shortening is cut into the flour until it resembles particles the size of salt • Pie dough should be mixed with the hands • A pie crust recipe should always list a specific amount of water • Too much flour, water, or fat will make the pie crust tough • Dough that is stretched to fit the pie pan will shrink from the sides while baking
Making Dough • When cutting in shortening with flour and salt, it is important to mix it thoroughly together like coarse corn meal so that your crust is tender and flaky • Water must be icy cold to prevent the fat from melting • Use a fork to mix the water into the dough • Handling the dough too much toughens the pastry dough
Rolling Dough • Always begin rolling from the center to the outer edge, lifting it up at the edge • Poking holes in the dough with a fork or pricking it, will prevent the dough from puffing during baking • Using a pastry cloth and stockinet will help prevent it from sticking to the rolling pin and counter top
Three Styles of Pie Crusts • Pie shell • baked separately and filled later • pricked crust • Filled with creams/pudding • Single crust pie • bottom crust and filling baked together • Ex: pecan and pumpkin • Double crust pie • bottom crust, filling, and top crust baked together • Ex: fruit pies
Double Crust Pie Sealing • Cut excess edge of dough off bottom crust • Fill pie dish • Lay top dough over ingredients then cut excess edge of dough off the top crust • Rub water on the bottom crust before adding top crust • Crimp them together using various fluting techniques
Storing & Caring for Pies/Dough • It is all right to re-roll the dough if it is not rolled perfectly the first time • Custard, chiffon, and cream pies do not need to be refrigerated and should be used within 6-7 days • Fruit pies are best when eaten within 1-2 days but can be kept up to four days • Fruit pies can be frozen for 9-10 months. They are better if frozen after baking rather than before baking • Cream/custard pies freeze very well • Baked or unbaked pie crusts may be frozen.
Secrets to Successful Pastries • If your pastry is crumbly and hard to roll: • Add more water, 1 teaspoon at a time • Toss the flour mixture and water together a little more or just till evenly moistened • If your pastry is tough: • Use a pastry blender to cut in the shortening or lard till well mixed and all of the mixture resembles small peas. • Use less water to moisten the flour mixture. • Toss the flour mixture and water together only till all of the flour mixture is moistened. • Use less flour when rolling out the pastry.
Secrets to Successful Pastries • If your crust shrinks excessively: • Roll the pastry to an even thickness • Mix in water only till evenly moistened • Don’t stretch pastry when transferring it • If the bottom crust is soggy: • Use a dull metal or glass pie plate, not a shiny metal pan • Patch any cracks in the pastry with a scrap of the pastry before adding the filling • Be sure the oven temperature is accurate. If the temperature is too low, the bottom crust will not bake properly