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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC NAMES PROGRAM Phase II Compilation GNIS Workshop at COGNA July 25, 2002 PowerPoint Presentation
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC NAMES PROGRAM Phase II Compilation GNIS Workshop at COGNA July 25, 2002. Mission: “ … provide for uniformity in geographic nomenclature and orthography throughout the Federal Government…” Public Law 80-242. U. S. Board on Geographic Names.

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u s board on geographic names

Mission: “ … provide for uniformity in geographic nomenclature and orthography throughout the Federal Government…”

Public Law 80-242

U. S. Board on Geographic Names
u s board on geographic names3
U. S. Board on Geographic Names

Promulgation: “…the Secretary shall

promulgate in the name of the Board

from time to time and in such forms

as will carry out the purpose of this

Act, decisions with respect to

geographic names, and principles of

geographic nomenclature and

orthography…”

gnis as a research tool
GNIS as a research tool
  • Official
  • Complete
  • Without bias
  • One name/one feature/one record
  • Regularly maintained
  • Dynamic
electronic gnis maintenance program
Electronic GNIS Maintenance Program
  • U.S. Geological Survey – National Mapping Program (1987)
  • U.S. Board on Geographic Names (1987)
  • U.S. Forest Service (1998)
  • National Park Service (1999)
  • Bureau of Land Management (soon)
phase i
Phase I
  • Generally – all named features on the most current, large scale USGS topographic maps were included. Some categories were omitted because more complete and digital lists were available from other sources. The following categories were not collected:
phase i not collected
Phase I – not collected
  • Airports
  • Radio and television towers
  • Federally administered areas greater than 30 square miles
  • Major and minor civil divisions
phase i not collected10
Phase I – not collected
  • Major features too large to be named on 1:24,000 scale topographic maps
  • Regional, historical, and building names
  • Roads and highways
phase ia
Phase IA
  • Geographic names found on the primary and secondary base maps of the U.S. Forest Service (approximately 12,000 maps) not listed on the USGS topographic maps
phase ia12
Phase IA
  • Geographic names found on the charts of the Office of Coast Survey (approximately 1,100 at various scales) not listed on USGS topographic maps
phase ii
Phase II
  • Available information from official State and local sources, other approved sources, and historical maps and documents
  • Includes ALL categories except roads and highways
base map series
Base Map Series
  • USGS 1:24,000 or 1:25,000 scale topographic maps are the base map series for the United States and the National Geographic Names Project
  • All names and variant names collected MUST be related to either the conventional or digital version of these topographic maps
base map series15
Base Map Series
  • All locative data must be measured and determined from these maps, except for some large areal features
  • All names on these topographic base maps may be assumed to be in GNIS
gnis data requirements
GNIS data requirements
  • Donotchange the name of a record with a BGN date or US date in Federal Status field
    • Record comments in the Remarks field
    • GNO will investigate and make changes
gnis data requirements17
GNIS data requirements
  • Features under BGN purview will require a DGNR to change the feature name
  • Exception! Small tanks and springs may be changed as field research indicates
  • It may be possible to expedite the process via SPN procedures
gnis data requirements18
GNIS data requirements
  • All feature names and variant names must have a bibliographic code
    • Bay of Chesapeack (MD-T2/p6)
    • Old Mitchell Mountain (US-M120)
  • The bibliographic code indicates the source from which that feature name or variant name was obtained
gnis data requirements19
GNIS data requirements
  • Remember that the bibliographic code must remain with the name if the name is moved
    • From feature name to variant name
    • From variant name to feature name
  • Never change a bibliographic code
    • Error? Record comments in Remarks
gnis data requirements20
GNIS data requirements
  • For a feature name, the bibliographic code will be listed without parentheses
    • Feature Name: Chesapeake Bay
    • Biblio code: US-M120
  • For a variant name, the bibliographic code will be enclosed within parentheses
    • Var Name: Bay of Chesapeack
    • Var Biblio Code: (MD-T2/p6)
gnis data requirements21
GNIS data requirements
  • One feature/one name/one record – no exceptions
  • One set of coordinates on the feature on each 1:24,000- or 1:25,000-scale map in which the feature exists

More on what a primary point is later.

gnis data requirements22
GNIS data requirements
  • The first coordinate in the record is always the primary point of the feature and, thus, determines the primary state and primary county 
gnis data requirements23
GNIS data requirements
  • Minimum required data elements for all records
    • Feature Name
    • Bibliographic code
    • Feature type (feature class)
    • Primary State / County
    • Primary Point – coordinates in DMS or “Unknown”
    • Mapname (determined by the coords)
gnis data requirements24
GNIS data requirements
  • Minimum required data for other conditions
    • If the feature type = valley, stream or arroyo, then add source coordinates
    • If the feature type = summit, ppl or hospital, then add elevation in feet
gnis data requirements25
GNIS data requirements
  • Minimum required data for other conditions
    • If the feature is located on other maps, then, secondary coordinates and mapname(s) and secondary state(s)/county(ies)
      • Valleys, streams & arroyos – in sequence from mouth to source – (up stream)
      • Areal features – parks, national forests, etc. – ensure complete coverage 
gnis primary point
GNIS – Primary point
  • The primary point is always the first coordinate in the record
    • For linear features, valleys, streams and arroyos: the mouth
    • For canals, tunnels and trails: the center
    • For areal features: the center 
gnis primary point27
GNIS – Primary point
  • For summits, ranges: the highest point
  • For lakes: the center
  • For reservoirs: the center of the dam
  • For ppls: center of original settlement or central major intersection
  • For “point” features: …
gnis primary state primary county
GNIS – Primary state & primary county
  • Primary State/County
    • The primary state and primary county are determined at the location of the primary point
gnis source coordinates
GNIS – Source Coordinates
  • Source Coordinates – Heads
    • For all linear features - streams, valleys and arroyos
    • The longest straightest branch
    • May be located on the same map as the primary point
gnis source coordinates30
GNIS – Source Coordinates
  • Source Coordinates – Heads (cont)
    • Never located on the same map of any other secondary coordinate, only the primary map, if applicable
    • Always the last coordinate
    • Always the highest sequence number
feature points
Feature Points

Cells (quadrangles)

7.5

7

6

PointFeature

7.5

1

8

5

4

7

6

3

2

2

1

5

Linear Feature

Areal Feature

3

1

4

1 = Primary Point

 > 1 = Secondary Points

gnis elevation
GNIS – Elevation
  • Elevation – in feet only
    • Required for all summits, ppls and hospitals with known coordinates
    • Interpolate the value from the contours if not labeled
    • Elevation determined at the primary point
gnis optional data
GNIS – optional data
  • Highly desirable
    • Elevation
    • STR
    • History
    • Description
    • Size 
gnis optional data34
GNIS – optional data
  • Elevation – for other feature types
    • Locate at the primary point
  • STR – section(s), township, range
    • sec 7,T50N,R30W,Fifth Principal Mer
    • secs 12&13,T36N,R15N,Fifth Principal Mer
    • Tps14&15S,Rgs22&23W,Fifth Principal Mer 
gnis optional data35
GNIS – optional data
  • History – chronological history or name origin
    • Established 1894
    • ‘Aconye’ is derived from the Apache word ‘Akonye’ meaning ‘people of the canyon’
    • Named for Rosse Carr, former owner of the island
    • Destroyed by fire in 1954 
gnis optional data36
GNIS – optional data
  • Description
    • Location relative to other features
      • Located 4 mi N of … and 10 mi E of …
    • Informational
      • Inundated by Lake Mead
      • Destroyed by fire
      • Abandoned 
gnis optional data37
GNIS – optional data
  • Description
    • To note some parameters of the record during data compilation, usually for incomplete records
      • Incomplete record
      • Source not determined
      • Secondary point(s) not complete
      • Elevation not determined
      • Primary point not determined, located in Canada 
gnis optional data38
GNIS – optional data
  • Size
    • Length and/or breadth
      • 150 feet long by 200 feet wide
      • 10 miles long
    • Acreage of feature
      • 4,251 acres
compiling map by map vs compiling by feature
Compiling map by map vs compiling by feature
  • Compilation for most features can usually be completed using only one map
  • However, if a feature extends onto other map(s), one must determine whether a new GNIS record is required or if a current record needs coordinates and/or state(s)/ county(ies) added for the current map
compiling map by map vs compiling by feature40
Compiling map by map vs compiling by feature
  • Large areal features may be compiled more easily on small scale maps
    • The basic series maps will be needed to accurately locate feature boundaries near map edges
    • Ensure that the small scale map depicts the correct boundaries for the feature which is being compiled 
compiling map by map vs compiling by feature41
Compiling map by map vs compiling by feature
  • Once the primary point, primary state and county are determined, it may be possible to compile all the rest of the required data elements map by map, especially linear features
    • Use Description and carefully list applicable record parameters
    • Otherwise, compile the record using all maps at once
gnis web entry and web edit sites
GNIS Web Entry and Web Edit sites
  • New Record Entry Form – Ver 4.1
    • http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnis/data_entry_form.data_entry_logon
  • Feature Edit Form - Ver 2.1
    • http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnis/v2_edit.t_forest_edit_logon
determining which features require new records or editing
Determining which features require new records or editing
  • Obtain a listing of all features on the map being compiled or annotate the map
    • Using the Feature EditForm, search by cell name and state and print the list
  • Compare the map and listing to determine which features on the map are already in GNIS 
determining which features require new records or editing44
Determining which features require new records or editing
  • Identify the features whose records do not require editing
  • Optional data may be changed or added as indicated, but avoid changing optional data items for BGN records – use Remarks 
determining which features require new records or editing45
Determining which features require new records or editing
  • Identify the features whose records require editing
    • Name change – Edit - see Ex 1 & Ex 2
    • Name error – Edit - see Ex 3
    • Add coords – Edit - see Ex 4
    • Delete coords – Edit - see Ex 5
    • Change State/County – Edit - see Ex 6 
determining which features require new records or editing46
Determining which features require new records or editing
  • Identify the features with no records in the listing, mayormaynotrequireanewrecord_
    • Feature located wholly on the map – New record - see Ex 7
    • Feature crosses map boundary, search GNIS by the name and/or other criteria 
determining which features require new records or editing47
Determining which features require new records or editing
    • If the search returns no record – see Ex 8 & Ex 9 for new records
    • If the search returns a record for the feature, add coordinates and/or other data – Edit - see Ex 3
  • We recommend, initially, that the data be recorded on a form
name changes in gnis
Name changes in GNIS
  • Records under BGN purview cannot be changed unilaterally
  • Exception! Small tanks and springs may be changed as field research indicates, but by SPN procedures
  • All new names and variant names must have a biblio code
specific examples to be discussed today
Specific examples to be discussed today
  • Ex 1, Edit – The Name changes – the new name is not a variant
  • Ex 2, Edit – The Name changes, a variant name becomes the feature name
  • Ex 3, Edit - Name error(s) on listing
specific examples to be discussed today50
Specific examples to be discussed today
  • Ex 4, Edit - Adding secondary coordinates to a record already in GNIS
  • Ex 5, Edit - Deleting coordinates to a record already in GNIS
  • Ex 6, Edit - Adding secondary State(s) and/or County(ies) to a record already in GNIS 
specific examples to be discussed today51
Specific examples to be discussed today
  • Ex 7, New record, feature located on one map
    • Point feature
    • Linear feature
  • Ex 8, New record, feature located on morethanone map 
specific examples to be discussed today52
Specific examples to be discussed today
  • Ex 9, New record, adding secondary, primary or source coordinates to a NEW record you recently added to GNIS in this project
specific examples to be discussed today53
Specific examples to be discussed today
  • Ex 10, What to do when your situation does not fit one of the scenarios discussed today
    • PLEASE call us!!
ex 1 edit name change old name becomes variant
Ex 1, Edit - Name change – old name becomes variant
  • A new feature name is compiled and the new name is not in the variants list
    • Copy and paste the Feature name and its Biblio code to the variants list first
    • Enter the new Feature name and its Biblio code
      • See Bunyan Hill Cemetery
ex 2 edit name change a variant becomes feature name
Ex 2, Edit - Name change - a variant becomes feature name
  • A variant name becomes the feature name, feature name becomes a variant name
    • Copy and paste the Feature name and its Biblio code to the variants list first
    • Enter the new Feature name and its Biblio code
    • Enter in Remarks – “remove Variant name which became the Feature name”
ex 2 edit name change a variant becomes feature name56
Ex 2, Edit - Name change - a variant becomes feature name
  • Remember to move the bibliographic codes as well
    • Houck Draw – Weimer Point map ?
    • Upper Waterton Lake, MT
    • Alderwood State Wayside, OR
ex 3 name errors on listing
Ex 3, Name errors on listing
  • Incomplete name
    • Pine Spring & Pancho Spring, reservoirs on Boundary Butte
    • Use Remarks to indicate why only the name is changed “added generic to FName” because when the FName changes, we expect an FBiblio change
ex 3 name errors on listing58
Ex 3, Name errors on listing
  • Duplicate records –
    • General George Crook National Recreation Trail on Promontory Butte
      • Choose the record to keep, usually the one with the lower Feature ID (FID)
      • Move applicable data to the record to be kept
      • Record FID of kept record
ex 3 name errors on listing continued
Ex 3, Name errors on listing (continued)
    • FID the record(s) to be deleted
    • 12345 FID00044731 General George Crook Natioanl Recreation Trail
  • Mogollon Plateau - see listing for Weimer Point cell (map)
ex 3 name errors on listing continued60
Ex 3, Name errors on listing (continued)
  • Misspelled generic?
    • Butler Tak on Boundary Butte _
    • ? Ex 1 - Bulter Tank – add as variant
    • ? Ex 2 - James Feild – a locale
  • Be VERY VERY careful with misspellings
ex 3 name errors on listing continued61
Ex 3, Name errors on listing (continued)
  • If there is any doubt, add the misspelled name to the variant list (with its biblio code)
    • Laek Chargoggagoggmanchaugagoggchaubunagungamaug (US-T128/MCMC)
ex 4 edit adding secondary coordinates
Ex 4, Edit - Adding secondary coordinates
  • Chevelon Canyon Lake
    • Add 1 coord Chevelon Crossing map
  • Chevelon Ridge
    • Add 1 coord
  • Chevelon Creek
    • Add 2 coord, change map sequence
  • Sitgreaves National Forest
    • Add 3 coords & 2 counties
ex 5 edit deleting coordinates
Ex 5, Edit - Deleting coordinates
  • East Fork Potato Patch Draw
    • Web edit – Weimer Point cell
    • Mouth Location on TopoZone?
    • Source locationon TopoZone
  • Peloncillo Mountains
ex 6 edit adding secondary state s and or county ies
Ex 6, Edit - Adding secondary State(s) and/or County(ies)
  • Fort Apache Indian Reservation
    • Adding secondary county
ex 7 new record feature located on one map
Ex 7, New record, feature located on one map
  • Determine location of feature
  • Measure coordinates
    • You may use www.TopoZone.com
    • Or www.MapTech.com
    • Or scale the map with GeoRuler, GIS
  • Record minimum required data on a form, plus optional data, if any 
ex 7 new record one map
Ex 7, New record, one map
  • Example 7 (1 of 2)
    • feature name - Dog Tank
    • biblio - US-T152/2002
    • feature type - reservoir
    • primary state - AZ
    • primary county - Coconino County 
ex 7 new record feature located on one map67
Ex 7, New record, feature located on one map
  • Example 7 (1 of 2) – continued
    • primary coords - 342316N1104729W
    • primary map - Wiemer Point
    • STR - sec 31,T12N,R15E,Gila and Salt River Mer
    • elevation - 7400
  • Enter data in Web entry form
ex 7 new record feature located on one map68
Ex 7, New record, feature located on one map
  • Example 7 (2 of 2) - stream
    • feature name - Small Stream
    • biblio - US-T152/2002
    • feature type - stream
    • primary state - AZ
    • primary county - Coconino County
    • prim coords - 342321N1104520W 
ex 7 new record feature located on one map69
Ex 7, New record, feature located on one map
  • Example 7 (2 of 2) – continued
    • primary map - Wiemer Point
    • source - 342432N1104710W
    • STR - sec 31,T12N,R15E,Gila and Salt River Mer
    • elevation - 7401
  • Enter data in Web entry form
ex 8 new record feature located on more than one map
Ex 8, New record, feature located on morethanone map
  • Start with the same procedure in Ex 7 for a new record on one map
    • Hellsgate Wilderness
  • To determine the primary point & primary state/county for the feature review all of the maps for the feature or a small-scale map – Visitors’ map
ex 8 new record one map
Ex 8, New Record - > one map
  • Obtain locative data for primary point TopoZone
  • Add secondary coords & state(s) /county(ies)
  • Add to Description – “Incomplete record” if the feature cannot be completely compiled
ex 8 new record one map72
Ex 8, New Record - > one map
  • If compilation is incomplete, add to Description any other appropriate information
  • Commit the record and, ifincomplete, recordthetemporaryFeatureIDnumber
    • The FID will be used in the next step
slide73
Ex 9, New record to GNIS, adding secondary, primary or source coordinates to a NEW record you recently added to GNIS in this project
  • On the first page of the Web entry form input the feature ID in the “Search for temporary ID:” box in the upper right corner of the form _
ex 10 your situation is not discussed today
Ex 10, Your situation is not discussed today
  • Ex 10, When your situation does not fit one of the scenarios discussed today:
    • Please call one of us, we’d rather spend the time in the beginning answering questions than returning the work to you later
gnis whom to call
GNIS – Whom to call
  • Roger Payne – 703-648-4544
    • rpayne@usgs.gov
  • Robin Worcester - 703-648-4551
    • rworcest@usgs.gov
  • Eve Edwards - 703-648-4548
    • eedwards@usgs.gov
  • Claire DeVaughan - 703-648-6307
    • cdevaugh@usgs.gov
what next
What next?
  • You should already have your username/password. If not, send us an email at rworcest@usgs.gov
  • Include POC and telephone number
  • This will allow us to create a group list and send general announcements
complete list of us biblio codes
Complete list of US biblio codes
  • Using your browser, go to:
    • ftp://130.11.49.249/incoming/GNISrw
    • Select BIBLIST_072002_US.TXT