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Types of Childhood Disabilities and Other Special Needs. Epilepsy Learning Disability Mental Retardation Speech and Language Impairment Spina Bifida Traumatic Brain Injury Severe and/or Multiple Disabilities. Autistic Spectrum Disorders ADD/ADHD Visual Impairments and Blindness
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Types of Childhood Disabilities and Other Special Needs • Epilepsy • Learning Disability • Mental Retardation • Speech and Language Impairment • Spina Bifida • Traumatic Brain Injury • Severe and/or Multiple Disabilities • Autistic Spectrum Disorders • ADD/ADHD • Visual Impairments and Blindness • Cerebral Palsy • Hearing Loss and Deafness • Down Syndrome • Emotional Disturbance The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 1
AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS (Language and Social and Emotional Development) Autism is a neurologically based Pervasive Developmental Disorder that is usually evident by age three and varies from low to high functioning. It affects a child’s ability to communicate, understand language, play and relate to others. • ADD/ADHD (Multiple Areas of Development) ADHD is a neurobiological disorder that causes developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 2
BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS (Sensory Development) Including partially sighted, low vision, legally blind and totally blind. • CEREBRAL PALSY (Motor Development) A condition caused by injury to the parts of the brain that control our ability to use our muscles and bodies. Cerebral means having to do with the brain. Palsy means weakness or problems with using the muscles. The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 3
DEAFNESS AND HEARING LOSS (Sensory Development) Hearing Loss is an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating. Deafness is a condition that prevents an individual from receiving sound in all or most of its forms. • DOWN SYNDROME (Multiple Areas of Development) Down Syndrome is the most common and readily identifiable chromosomal condition associated with mental retardation. The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 4
EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE (Social and Emotional Development) A term used to describe children with emotional, behavioral or mental disorders, like depression and unsocialized aggression problems. • EPILEPSY (Multiple Areas of Development) A physical condition that occurs when there is a sudden, brief change in how the brain works affecting a person’s consciousness, movement or actions. These physical changes are called epileptic seizures. The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 5
LEARNING DISABILITY (Cognitive and Language Development) A general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. The skills most often affected are: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and math. • MENTAL RETARDATION (Multiple Areas of Development) A term used when a child has limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself and social skills. The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 6
SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT (Language and Social and Emotional Development) Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function. • SPINA BIFIDA (Motor Development) Spina Bifida means cleft spine, which is an incomplete closure in the spinal column causing muscle weakness or paralysis. The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 7
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (Multiple Areas of Development) A traumatic brain injury is an injury to the brain, which affects how the person acts, moves, thinks and learns. • SEVERE AND/OR MULTIPLE DISABILITIES (Multiple Areas of Development) People with sever disabilities are those who traditionally have severe to profound mental retardation, as well as additional disabilities, including movement difficulties, sensory losses, and behavior problems. The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 8
Life Situations That Can Produce Developmental Delays or Regressions • Child Abuse • Death in Family • Divorce • Cultural Practices • Gang Violence • Home Language Environment • Natural Disasters • Terrorism The Center for the Improvement of Child Caring SN 9