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Chapter 2 The Process

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  1. Chapter 2The Process

  2. A Layered Technology Software Engineering Software Engineering tools methods process model a “quality” focus

  3. A Common Process Framework • Common process framework • Framework activities • work tasks • work products • milestones & deliverables • QA checkpoints • Umbrella Activities

  4. Umbrella Activities • Software project management • Formal technical reviews • Software quality assurance • Software configuration management • Document preparation and production • Reusability management • Measurement • Risk management

  5. The Process Model:Adaptability • the framework activities will always be applied on every project ... BUT • the tasks (and degree of rigor) for each activity will vary based on: • the type of project (an “entry point” to the model) • characteristics of the project • common sense judgment; concurrence of the project team

  6. Linear Models

  7. Waterfall Model SSR - System Software Review PDR - Preliminary Design Review CDR - Critical Design Review TRR - Test Rediness Review FCA - Functional Configuration Audit PCA - Physical Configuration Audit ORR - Operational Rediness Review Software Requirements Analysis Software Design SRS Code and Unit Testing SDS Software Integration and Test STP Software Acceptance Test SIP SSR PDR CDR TRR FCA PCA CRR

  8. Hardware Hardware Implementation System Design Operational Timelines Software Requirements Analysis Preliminary Software Design Detailed Software Design Code and Unit Testing Software Integration and Test Software Acceptance Test SDR SSR PDR CDR TRR FCA PCA Waterfall - DOD Model NASA Model) PP SRS PDD SDS STP SIP

  9. Software Requirements Analysis Build Prototype Software Design Code and Unit Testing Software Integration and Test Software Acceptance Test SSR PR PDR CDR TRR FCA PCA CRR Rapid Application Development Model Rapid Throwaway Prototype Model SRS PDD SDS STP SIP

  10. RAD Characteristics • High speed adaptation of the linear model • Based on Component-based construction • Has incremental flavor • Not well- suited where precision is required, • e.g. high risk systems not easily modularized systems • Have rigid performance requirements • 1. Model the Information Flow • 2. Refine the flows into Data elements • 3. Model the data transformations • 4. Generate the code 4GLs, component reuse, CASE • 5. Test and integration

  11. Software Requirements Analysis Software Design Code and Unit Testing Software Integration and Test Software Acceptance Test SSR PDR CDR TRR FCA PCA CRR Reuse and Automated Development Models/Component Assembly Model SRS SDS STP SIP Identify Reusable Components Informal Specification Formal Specifications Code

  12. Component Based Development • Architecture for Software Reuse • Based on Object Orientation • Classes are stored in a library • When requirements are received,the first stop is the library

  13. Linear Model Characteristics • Documentation driven model • systematic and requires rigor. • Inflexible partitioning of project into distinct stages • difficult to respond to changes in customer requirements • Model appropriate when requirements are well-understood. • Programmers HATE to create documentation. • l Users HATE to read documentation. • l If users read, they rarely understand documentation. • Programmers don't understand other programmers documentations. • Standards for documentation not clear although UML ordained.

  14. Prototyping Iterative Models

  15. Software Requirements Analysis Build Prototype Software Design Code and Unit Testing Software Integration and Test Software Acceptance Test SSR PR PDR CDR TRR FCA PCA CRR Evolutionary (Prototype) Model ONLY A PART OF THE FULL SYSTEM SRS PDD SDS STP SIP Series of Implementations of each PART

  16. Evolutionary/Prototype Model • Issues • Process is not visible--Lack of process visibility • Systems are often poorly structured—Change tends to corrupt the structures • Special tools and techniques may be required—Special skills (e.g. in languages for rapid prototyping) may be required • Applicability • For small or medium-size interactive systems • For parts of large systems (e.g. the user interface) • For short-lifetime systems

  17. b u s i n e s s m o d e l i n g b u s i n e s s d a t a m o d e l i n g m o d e l i n g business p r o c e s s m o d e l i n g d a t a modeling m o d e l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n t e s t i n g & p r o c e s s t u r n o v e r data m o d e l i n g modeling a p p l i c a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n process modeling t e s t i n g & t u r n o v e r application generation testing & turnover Iterative Models team #3 team #2 team #1 60 - 90 days RAD

  18. S y s t e m / i n f o r m a t i o n e n g i n e e r i n g a n a l y s i s d e s i g n c o d e t e s t a n a l y s i s d e s i g n c o d e t e s t a n a l y s i s d e s i g n c o d e t e s t a n a l y s i s d e s i g n c o d e t e s t The Incremental Model increment 1 delivery of 1st increment delivery of increment 2 2nd increment delivery of increment 3 3rd increment increment 4 delivery of 4th increment calendar time

  19. Software Requirements Analysis Software Design Code and Unit Testing Software Integration and Test Software Acceptance Test SSR PDR CDR TRR FCA PCA CRR Incremental Development Model ONLY A PART OF THE FULL SYSTEM SRS SDS STP SIP Can Determine a PART at any phase.

  20. Characteristics of Incremental Model • Same Requirements, specification, maintenance,and requirement phases as in Waterfall • The systems is partitioned into builds where each build is independently designed and scheduled "incrementally“ The 1st build gives some "production"functionality Subsequent builds add functionality • User perspective • Get some results quickly • Reduces new system "culture shock"

  21. Characteristics of Incremental Model • Costs easily prorated over the development cycle • It employs the systems approach • Changes are easier to implement (e.g.design of later builds may not start until some phases are complete and all their changes well known). • Problems - May degenerate into "Build and Fix“ • May result in builds that cannot integrate with one another

  22. Spiral Model Risk Analysis Prototyping Planning Simulation Operational Prototype Verification for Next Level Developing Client Evaluation and Input

  23. C u s t o m e r E v a l u a t i o n An Evolutionary (Spiral) Model P l a n n i n g R i s k A n a l y s i s Prototyping C u s t o m e r C o m m u n i c a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n & R e l e a s e And input Simulation/ Operational Prototype/Verification for the Next Level/Development

  24. Specification Incremental Development Planning Specification and Design Usage Design Statistical Testing Certification CleanRoom Approach

  25. V Model OPERATION Validate requirements REQUIREMENTS & MAINTENANCE ANALYSIS ACCEPTANCE TESTING SYSTEM DESIGN SYSTEM TESTING Verify design PROGRAM UNIT & INTE- DESIGN GRATION TESTING CODING [Pfleeger 98]

  26. Operational Specification Model [Pfleeger 98] Execute and Revise OPERATIONAL TRANSFORMED TEST SPECIFICATION SPECIFICATION (problem-oriented) (implementation- oriented) DELIVERED SYSTEM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS (sometimes informal or incomplete)

  27. Still Other Process Models • Concurrent process model—recognizes that different part of the project will be at different places in the process • Formal methods—the process to apply when a mathematical specification is to be developed

  28. Formal Method Characteristics • Formal Methods Model Specifications produce proofs Required rigorous notation Enhances accuracy Reduces flexibility • Some Formal Methods Petri Nets, Zed, Hoare Logic, CSP, Weakest Preconditions • Formal Methods Abstraction Add formality to reduce ambiguity Use graphical representations Describe the possible system states, transitions, and triggers

  29. Capability Maturity Model • Organizations are not born using a mature process model. • Most organizations use NO known process model • Watts Humphrey wrote a book to lay out a plan for improving the process model within organizations. His book “Managing the Software Process” and other research has greatly improved the software engineering process. • The SEI Developed a capability maturity model which proposes a model for maturing an organizations process model.

  30. Capability Maturity Model • Five Process Maturity Levels • Level 0: Chaos • Level 1: Initial • Level 2: Repeatable • Level 3: Defined • Level 4: Managed • Level 5: Optimizing

  31. Level 1: Initial • The software process is characterized as ad hoc, and occasionally even chaotic. Few processes are defined, and success depends on individual effort.

  32. Level 2: Repeatable • Basic project management processes are established to track cost, schedule, and functionality. The necessary process discipline is in place to repeat earlier successes on projects with similar applications

  33. Process Maturing to Level 2 • Software configuration management • Software quality assurance • Software subcontract management • Software project tracking and oversight • Software project planning • Requirement management

  34. Level 3: Defined • The software process for both management and engineering activities is documented, standardized, and integrated into an organization-wide software process. All projects use a documented and approved version of the organization’s process for developing and maintaining software. • This level includes all characteristics defined for level 2.

  35. Process Maturing Level 3 • Peer Reviews • Inter-group coordination • Software product engineering • Integrated software management • Training program • Organization process definition • Organization process focus

  36. Level 4: Managed • Detailed measures of the software process and product quality are collected. Both the software process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled using detailed measures. • This level includes all characteristics defined for level 3.

  37. Process Maturing Level 4 • Software quality management • Quantitative process management

  38. Level 5: Optimizing • Continuous process improvement is enables by quantitative feedback from the process and from testing innovative ideas and technologies • This level includes all characteristics defined for level 5.

  39. Process Maturing Level 5 • Process change management • Technology change management • Defect prevention

  40. CMM Issues • focuses on project management rather than product development. • ignores the use of technologies such as rapid prototyping. • does not incorporate risk analysis as a key process area • does not define its domain of applicability