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  1. The Cartoon Animation Filter Jue Wang Steven Drucker Maneesh Agrawala Michael Cohen

  2. The Cartoon Animation Filter • Goal • Add “liveliness” to any motion signal • Should be • Simple • General • As automated as possible • Fast enough for real-time interaction

  3. A very boring animation

  4. Follow-through x’’ -x’’ -x’’ , x -x’’ + x Anticipation x*(t) = x(t) + x’’(t)*- x x’ x’’ time

  5. An almost as boring animation

  6. x*(t) = x(t) + x’’(t)*- x*(t) = x(t) + x(t)*- ’’ -LoG

  7. Convolution with -LoG Error in equation (2): x*(t) = x(t) * -LoG x*(t) = x(t) + x(t) * -LoG

  8. -LoG Parameters • Amplitude – user set • Width (frequency) – automatically set [later] s

  9. Image Sharpening

  10. Image Sharpening

  11. Demo 3 • Show ball with vectors forward and backward • Show 3 copies of curve, original and time shifted forward and back • Convolve • Show squash and stretch ball again

  12. p Squash and Stretch x’’ LoGp(t) = LoG(t+Dt) Dt ≈ x’’·p

  13. Squash and Stretch x’’ • Volume Preservation • Inversely stretch/squash orthogonally to acceleration time

  14. Squash and Stretch

  15. Related Work • Physically Based, lots • Stylized, e.g., Chenney et al. 2005, Igarashi et al. 2002 • Surface Deformation, lots… • Signal Based, e.g., • Unuma et al. 1995, • Bruderlin and Williams, 1995 • Video Paintbox, Collomosse 2004 • Motion Magnification, Liu et al. 2005

  16. Livening Up Powerpoint

  17. Livening Up Powerpoint

  18. Enhancing Video Objects

  19. Enhancing Video Objects

  20. Enhancing Video Objects • Need to maintain constraints • Simplest approach • Move figure in each frame vertically to keep feet/skateboard in place

  21. Enhancing Video Objects

  22. Enhancing Video Objects

  23. Enhancing Video Objects

  24. Enhancing Video Objects

  25. Enhancing Video Objects

  26. Golfswing • Apply filter to each DOF independently • What should the filter width be?

  27. fixed s adaptive s Setting LoG Width s(t) = 2p /w*(t) w*(t) = maxw|X(w)| w w*(t) = maxw|F(x’(t))| (over 32 frame window) q original time

  28. Walking

  29. Boxers

  30. Boxers

  31. Boxers

  32. Discussion • (Almost) fully automated • NOT a tool for experts • But may make good first cut • Need better constraint maintenance • IK, physical constraints • Online (in-game) usage • Single animation adjusts to situation

  33. Where from here? • Make a kid’s animation system