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Survey Design. Teri Peterson Acknowledgements. The Survey Kit By Arlene Fink Survey Design and Sampling Procedures By Tony Babinec What is a survey?. A system for collecting information: From or about people Describe, compare or explain/predict

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survey design

Survey Design

Teri Peterson

  • The Survey Kit
    • By Arlene Fink
  • Survey Design and Sampling Procedures
    • By Tony Babinec
what is a survey
What is a survey?
  • A system for collecting information:
    • From or about people
    • Describe, compare or explain/predict
    • Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors or characteristics
seven steps of surveys
Seven Steps of Surveys
  • Setting objectives
  • Designing the study
  • Composing a reliable and valid instrument
  • Administering the survey
  • Preparing the data
  • Data analysis
  • Reporting the results
setting objectives
Setting Objectives
  • Be specific
  • Questions determined by objectives
  • Define all imprecise or ambiguous terms
  • Which questions address each objective?
  • May be stated as:
    • Research questions
    • Null hypotheses
    • Research (alternative) hypotheses
where do objectives come from
Where do objectives come from?
  • Defined needs
  • Literature review
  • Focus groups
  • Consensus panels
sound choice of population and sampling scheme
Sound Choice of Population and Sampling Scheme
  • Define the reference population
  • Define the sampling scheme
    • Probability sample vs. nonprobability sample
    • Random assignment to groups
    • Consider likely response rate
      • Unsolicited surveys may be as low as 20% after 1 mailing
      • There are techniques to improve response rates
power and sample size
Power and Sample Size
  • An underpowered trial is unlikely to demonstrate a difference and may ultimately be considered of little or no value.
  • Sample Size: an educated wild guess vs. a wild guess.
  • Generally the sample size estimate I give you will be larger than you are able to obtain.
types of survey instruments
Types of Survey Instruments
  • Self-administered questionnaires
    • Mailed, emailed, or completed in person
    • Paper or electronic format
  • Interviews
    • Telephone, face-to-face, video-conferencing
  • Structured record reviews
    • Specially created form
    • Gathers data from written records (e.g. medical records, court records)
  • Structured observations
validity and reliability
Validity and Reliability
  • Validity: Does the instrument measure what you think it measures?
  • Reliability: If I used the instrument again would I get the same score?
some ideas for increasing response rate
Some Ideas for Increasing Response Rate
  • Use a population that is fairly interested in the topic.
  • Assure anonymity
  • Follow up nonrespondents (Dillman’s total design or tailored design method)
  • Keep the survey as short and straight-forward as possible.
  • Provide gift or cash incentives.
survey design12
Survey Design
  • Experimental
    • Comparison of two or more groups (at least a treatment and a control)
      • Concurrent, randomly assigned
      • Concurrent, not randomly assigned
    • Self-controls
      • One group surveyed twice
    • Historical controls
    • Combinations (e.g. concurrent controls with pre and post measures)
survey design13
Survey Design
  • Descriptive or observational designs
    • Information on groups that already exist
    • No new groups created
    • Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal or time-series
    • Cohorts
      • Prospective
      • Provide changes in specific populations across time.
    • Case Controls
      • Retrospective
      • At least two groups

Allocation of Units to Groups

By Randomization

Not by Randomization

A random sample is selected from one population; units are then randomly assigned to different treatment groups.

Random samples are selected from existing distinct populations.

Inferences to populations can be drawn

At Random

Selection of Units

Collections of available units from distinct groups are examined.

A group of study units is found; units are then randomly assigned to treatment groups

Not at Random

Causal inferences can be drawn

From The Statistical Sleuth

survey plan
Survey Plan
  • Objective: What is the purpose of the survey?
  • What is the reference population?
  • Sample:
    • How will you draw the sample? (Probability sampling vs. nonprobability sampling)
    • What is the appropriate sample size?
    • Consider the expected response rate
  • How will the survey be administered?
  • How long do you expect the survey to take?
  • Resources required/ privacy concerns.
contact me at any stage
Contact me at any stage!
  • Teri Peterson
  • 282-4861
  • Make an appointment and we can talk through any of these issues.
  • Office of Research: a resource for you.