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Sports Nutrition Research Update 2007 With Exercise Physiology and General Studies with Practical Application G. Douglas Andersen, DC, DACBSP, CCN www.andersEnchiro.com. Nutrient Timing Study. 17 males, aged 18-28 with 1 to 5 years of lifting experience.
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With Exercise Physiology andGeneral Studies with Practical Application
G. Douglas Andersen, DC, DACBSP, CCN
the 10 week experiment.
*Measured as contractile protein accural + Type Ila
& Type IIx fiber cross-sectional area.
Cribb, P.J, Hayes, A., Effects of Supplement Timing and Resistance – Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.
Med.Sci.. Sp. Ex. 2006; 38, (.11) 1918-26
Average strength (kg)
Exercise Whey (n=6) Casein (n=7)
Squat Pre 80.2 71.0
Post 155.5 123.2
Bench Pre 84.0 87.0
Post 132.0 105.5
Pull-down Pre 84.0 72.0
Post 106.8 92.7
Cribb, P.J., Williams, A.D., et. al. The Effect of Whey Isolate and Resisitance Training on Strength, Body Composition
and Plasma Glutamine. Int.J.Sp.Nutr.Metab. 2006: (16) 494-509
Time: 30 min. before, 30 min. following workouts and at bedtime.
Whey Soy Placebo
Squat (kg) +26.7 +23.7 +14.1
Bench (kg) +8.2 +7.6 +4.0
Urinary (3-mh*) 24% 30% 42%
Lean mass (kg) 2.5 1.7 0.3
*Urinary 3 methyl histidine (umol/kg lean tissue mass) an
indicator of protein catabolism
Candow, D.G., Burke, N.C., et. al. Effect of Whey and Soy Protein Supplementation Combined with Resistance
Training in Young Adults. Int.J.Sp.Nutr>Metab. 2006: (16) 233-244
There were no changes in delayed onset muscle
soreness, range of motion, plasma, creatinine
kinase activity, peak isometric torque, or peak
HMB and KIC were not effective in reducing the signs or
Symptoms of eccentrically induced muscle soreness.
Hewitt, J., Nunan, D., et al. HMB and KIC Supplementation Does Not Reduce Signs and Symptoms of Exercise
Induced Muscle Damage. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S401:A2233.
Results before intervention
Results Following Intervention
Murray-Kolb, L.E., Beard, J.L. Iron Treatment normalizes Cognitive Functioning in Young Women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(3):778-787.
Connolly, D McHugh, M. Padilla-Zakour, o. “The efficiency of tart cherry juice blend in preventing the symptoms of
muscle damage” Br J Sports Med 2006; 6-21-06, pre print Epub
Serum EPO (mU/mL)
Day Echinacea Placebo
7 15.75 10.01
14 18.88 11.02
21 16.06 9.20
There were no statistically significant increases in hematocrit, hemoglobin, or red cell count despite positive trends.
Whitehead, MT The Effect of Four Weeks of Echinacea Supplementation on Erythropoietin and Indices of Erythropoietic Status Med Sci Sp Ex.
Group 1 – 200 mcg of chromium picolinate
Group 2 – Picolinate capsules
Group 3 – Placebo capsules
Cr pic pic placebo
Body Fat (%) -2.1 -2.0 -2.0
Lean Mass (%) +1.1 +1.2 +1.2
Conclusion: No difference between chromium picolinate
and placebo regarding fat loss or muscle gain in women
who consumed the same low-calorie diet while maintaining
their pretrial activity levels.
Lukaski, H.C., Penland, J.G. No Effect of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Body Weight/Composition of
Women Fed Controlled Diets. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S126:1122
Baseline 6 wks/sup 6 wks/sup+Q
30k time (min/sec) 52:18 51:31 50:42
Final 5K (min/sec)7:44 7:37 7:29
Speed (km/hr) 32.24 34.76 35.24
Power (watts) 277 293 303
Macrae, H., Meffered, K. Dietary Antioxidant Supplementation Combined with Qeurcetin Improves Cycling Time Trial
Performance. Int.J.Sp.Nutr.Ex. Metab. 2006: (16) 405-419.
T/E ratio of 4:1 from urine is currently the level used to screen for anabolic steroid use.
4 of 9 subjects used testosterone for 6 weeks, yet did
not test above the allowable limit.
Deakin, G., Rogerson, S., et al. Performance Enhancement and Urinary Detection After Short-Term Testosterone
Enanthate Use. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S405:A2249.
Conte, M., Percario, S., et al. Increase of Free Radical Production in Athletes Undergone Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training.
Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S405:A2250
The whole whey protein increased protein synthesis more than it’s essential amino acid content. Probably caused by greater insulin response to ingestion.
Katsanos, C.S., Paddon-Jones, D., Zhang, X., et al. Muscle Protein Synthesis in the Elderly Following Ingestion of
Whey Protein or its Corresponding Essential Amino Acid Content. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S112:A1061.
Isometric Endurance Time
Researchers concluded the 11.4% increase in isometric endurance was consistent with an increased intramuscular buffering capacity supporting their previous work that pH can limit exercise performance.
Harris, R.C., Hill, C.A., Sale, C., et al. Effect of 14 Days Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Isometric Endurance of the Knee Extensors. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S125:1119.
No difference in time trial, 02 consumption, or CO2 production
Rutherford, J., Stellingwerff, T., Spriet, L.L. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Endurance Performance in Well
Trained Cyclists. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S127:A1124.
50% VO2 max was performed and repeated 1 month later
Yoshida, M., Tanaka, H., et al. Effects of BCAA Supplementation on Plasma Amino Acids and Subjective Fatigue and
Muscle Soreness During Low-Intensity Prolonged Exercise. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S404:A2246
Test Vitamin C Placebo
Post exercise nitric oxide (ppb) 23.7 34.1
Post ex. leukotriene (ng/mmol/cr) 5.3 11.1
Post ex. prostaglandin F2 (ng/mmol/cr) 8.5 13.0
Post ex. hydrogen peroxide (mmol/L) 5.6 12.6
Conclusion: In this trial vitamin C reduces severity of exercise-induced asthma
Tecklenburg, S., Stager, J.M., et al. Ascorbic Acid Supplementation Reduces Severity of Exercise-Induced Asthma. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S382:2158.
Pahnke, M.D., Trinity, J.D., Coyle, E.F. Large Interindividual Variability in Sweat Sodium Loss in Well-Trained
Endurance Athletes. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S218:A1509.
(1 mmol/na = 23 mg/na)
Comment: This study should be replicated with a larger sample size.
Godek, S.F., Godek, J., McCrossin, J., Bartolozzi, A. Sweat and Sodium Losses in Professional Ice Hockey Players
During a Pre-Season Practice and Game.
Times in minutes
Subject Hi Na Low Na_____
1 49.1 47.0
2 82.2 47.0
3 85.2 59.8
4 136.3 125.9
5 59.0 48.8
6 59.3 38.3
7 70.0 53.2
8 37.4 38.4
High Na increased plasma volume, decreased perceived exertion and
improved exercise capacity in the heat in 7/8 subjects.
Sims, S.T, Vliet, L., et. al. Sodium Loading Aids Fluid Blance and Reduces Physiological Strain of Trained Men
Exercising in the Het. Med.Sci.Sp.Ex. 2007; 39 (1) 123-130
Times were slower as temperatures increased. Men, women, elites, and recreational runners were all affected in a linear fashion. Slower runners had greater sensitivity to heat than elites.
1Ely, M R., Cheuvront, S.N., Roberts, W.O., Montain, S.J. Impact of Weather on Marathon Running Performance. Med
Sci Sp Ex. 2007;39(3)487-501.
Sherman, R. Batterham, A. Influence of Pre-Cooling on Skill Performance During Intermittent Exercise in the Heat. Med
Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S58:A824.
Apparent unsuccessful office-designed programs need on-field observational confirmation.
Matthews III, M.L., Aaron, D.J., Jekal, Y., et al. Comparison of Predicted vs. Actual Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
for a Submaximal Exercise Test. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S79:A917
Baker, L.B., Doherty, K.A., Chow, M., Kenney, W.L. Progressive Dehydration Causes a Progressive Decline in Basketball Performance in 17-22-Year-Old Men. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S177:A1341.
The 3 trials were double blind and consisted of drills to simulate a 4 quarter game
Each subject played:
Euhydrated with Gatorade
Euhydrated with a flavored placeboBasketball, Fluids, and Performance
*15 feet around the world, and free throws
**Suicide sprints times (seconds)
***10 width of court sprints (seconds)
Dougherty, K.A., Baker, L.B., Chow, M., et al. Two Percent Dehydration Impairs and Six Percent Carbohydrate Drink
Improves Boys Basketball Skills. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(9):1650-1658.
1. Gastric emptying
2. Intestinal absorption
3. System retention
Fluid Retention at 3 hours
Water CHO CHO+PRO
Total (mL) 880 1245 1519
Percent 53% 75% 88%
Seifert, J., Harmon, J., DeClercq, P. Protein Added to a Sports Drink Improves Fluid Retention. Int.J.Sp.Mutr.Metab.
2006: (16) 420-428
There was no difference in the 2 hour ride, the first timed trial, or leg extensions to exhaustion. Adding protein increased the time to fatigue following the 4 hour rest by 24%.
Millard-Stafford, M., Warren, G.L., Hitchcock, K.M., et al. Added Protein to Carbohydrate: No Acute Performance
Benefit but May Facilitate Subsequent Endurance Capacity. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S113:1066.
Results averaged over 3 trials:
CHO-PRO time to exhaustion 1hr 56 min
CHO time to exhaustion 1 hr 37 min
Saunders, M.K., Todd, M.K., Valentine, R.J. Inter-Study Examination of Physiological Variables Associated with
Improved Endurance Performance with Carbohydrate/Protein Administration. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S113:1067.
Results (Average time)
CHO-PRO - 9 min 31 sec CHO - 9 min 40 sec
Kuro awa, Y., Kime, R., Murase, N., et al. Milk Peptide Intake Enhances Bicycle Exercise Performance After Exhaustive
Exercise. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S125:1118.
Timed trial average:
CHO – 2 hours 15 minutes
CHO-PRO – 2 hours 15 minutes
Placebo – 2 hours 21 minutes
Van Essen, M., Gibala, M.J. Failure of Protein to Improve Timed Trial Performance When Added to a Sports Drink. Med
Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(8):1476-1483
Average Time to Exhaustion
VO2 CHO Time CHO-PRO
70% 1:35:48 1:38:06
80% 42:18 42:54
Creatine Kinase U/L
Time CHO CHO-PRO
Pre 202.6 187.5
Post 582.0 272.9
Romano-Ely, B.C., Todd, M.K., Saunders, M.J., St. Laurent, T. Reduced Post Exercise Muscle Damage with CHO
PRO versus CHO. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(9):1608-1616.
Timed trial times:
6% CHO 37:24
Osterberg, K.L., Zachwieja, J.J., Smith, J.E., Murray, R. Relative Benefits of Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate + Protein
for Cycling Time-Trial Performance. Med Sci Sp Ex.2006;38(5)S189:1392.
Beverage Jump Power (in watts)
Crawford, G.E., Miller, G.S., Womack, J.W., Green, J.S. Effect of Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate-Protein
Supplementation on Power Performance in Collegiate Football Players. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S340:A199
1) measured by creatine plasma creatine kinase levels 2) tested by one set of single leg extensions (70% 1 RM) to exhaustion
Creatine Leg Extension
Treatment Kinase IU* (reps to exhaustion)
Placebo +194 8.8
Hi CHO +203 9.5
Low CHO +224 9.7
CHO-PRO -16 11.3
St. Laurent, Jr., T.G., Todd, M.K., Saunders, M.J. Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage Improves Muscle Damage and
Function Versus ISO carbohydrate and ISO Caloric Carbohydrate-Only Beverages. Med Sci Sp Ex.
Subjects who received the whole eggs (~900mg cholesterol) in the first
Cholesterol increases the initial degree of post-exercise muscle
damage and appears to enhance long term recovery.
Riechman, S., Kean, D., et. al. Dietary Cholesterol Alters Recovery From Eccentric Muscle Damage In Humans. Med.Sci.Sp.Ex. 2006: 38 (5) 5386:A2172
Pain-fee group characteristics (via x-ray)
Unhealthy characteristics (via x-ray)
Matsunaga S. et al., The Roentgenographic Characteristics Of The Cervical Spine In Healthy Elders, Presented At The
Annual Meeting Of The North American Spine Society, Seattle, 2006; as yet published.
Normal weight fit, normal weight unfit, overweight fit, overweight unfit
Warnberg, J., Ruiz, J.R., Sjostrom, M., et al. Association of Fitness and Fatness to Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation
in Adolescents. The AVENA Study. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S8:A613.
Group Elevated CRP
Normal weight, fit 23%
Normal weight, unfit 24%
Overweight, fit 50%
Overweight, unfit 56%
Weight gain leads to systemic inflammation
3 hours post-exercise meal
“There is no such thing as a bad time to exercise for persons who want to increase insulin sensitivity.” (GDA)
Stephens, B.R., Sautter, J.M., Holtz, K.A., et al. The Influence of Meal Timing on Insulin Action Following Exercise.
Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S91:A967.
Test Change from Baseline* Glucose Tolerance N/C
Fasting Cholesterol N/C
Body Weight N/C
*At 8 weeks
Test Changes from Baseline_
Insulin Response to Glucose Challenge ↑↑
Fasting Free Fatty Acids ↑↑
Fasting Triglycerides ↑↑
Fasting Insulin ↑
Waist Size ↑
Waist to Hip Ratio ↑
The markers of obesity development due to inactivity occur
prior to weight gain.
Hou, C.W., Lin, C.H., Kung, H.W. Effect of a 2-Month Detraining on Body Composition and Insulin Sensitivity in Young
Female Dancers. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S188:1387.
Treatment # of Subjects # of Falls
Placebo 25 12
Vitamin D 200 IU 26 15
Vitamin D 400 IU 25 15
Vitamin D 600 IU 25 15
Vitamin D 800 IU 23 5
Broe, K.E., Chen, T.C., et al. A Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risks of Falls in Nursing Home Residents: A Randomized, Multiple-Dose Study. Journal of American Geriatric Society. 2007;55(2):234-239.
Johnson, S, Leck, K. The Effect of Dietary Fasting on Physical Balance. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S117:1085
Reduced energy expenditure in response to energy intake should be discussed
Wang, X., Tongjian, Y., Johnson, J., et al. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Decreases During a 5-Month Calorie
Deficit Diet in Obese, Postmenopausal Women. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S14:A636.
Mohr, C.R., Otto, A.D., Jakicic, J.M. Effects of Meal Periodicity on Weight Loss. Med Sci Sp Ex.
Results: Maitainers Regainers
of fresh fruits and vegetables a day: 77% 22%
Stewart, E.E., Dubose, K.D., Smith, B.K., Donnelly, J.E. Weight Management Strategies of Successful Weight
Maintainers Subsequent to Clinically Relevant Weight Loss. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;S188:A1344
Fukuda, R., Nakagaichi, M., Tahara, Y. The Effect of Exercise and Weight Loss on Adiponectin on Obese Women. Med
Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S467:A2498.
1) inadequate amounts of stimulatory substances*
2) possible ingredient antagonism
*Note: As a proprietary formula, specific amounts of the ingredients were not disclosed
Comment: Spend your $199 elsewhere
Stahlnecker IV, A.C., Brown, G.A. Acute Effects of a Weight-Loss Supplement on Resting Metabolic Rate and
Anaerobic Exercise Performance. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S403:A2242.
1 control, 2 eccentric exercise, 3 eccentric exercise with ultrasound, 4 eccentric exercise with sham
Ultrasound group had less swelling and stiffness
No difference between placebo group (sham US) and untreated groups (sham US)
Plaza, P.L., Penailillo, L., Gurovich, A.N. Effects of Sham Therapeutic Ultrasound in a Controlled Trial. Med Sci Sp Ex.
Warden, S.J., Stewart, R.L., Fuchs, R.K., et al. Ultrasound Produced by a Conventional Therapeutic Ultrasound Unit
Accelerates Fracture Repair. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S26:A686.
Runners with AT have decreased knee flexion (26.2 vs 21.9 degrees). AT runners EMG data showed decreased lateral gastroc, gluteus medius, and rectus femoris activity after heel strike, and decreased tibialis anterior activity before heel strike.
RE: Tibialis anterior findings – researchers stated it was “...either a novel etiological factor, or an adaptive response to injury.”
Azevedo, L.B., Lambert, M., Vaughan, C.L., Schwellnus, M.P. Lower Limb Biomechanics and EMG Activity in Runners with
Achilles Tendinopathy. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;28(5)S123:A1109.
In conclusion, ITB syndrome is caused by repetitive compression rather than
Fairclough, J., Hayashi, K., Toumi, H.H., et al. The Structure of Iliotibial Band in Relation to Iliotibial Band Friction
Syndrome. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006;38(5)S552:A2837.
Runners with lower back pain
Gonzalez, P., Akuthota, V., et al. Prevalence of Low Back Pain in Recreational Distance Runners. Med Sci Sp Ex.
Asplund, C.A., Brown, D.L. The Running Shoe Prescription. Physician and Sports Medicine. 2005;33:17-24.
Increasing total activity (specifically household activity) was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
Lahmann, P.H., Friedenreich, C., et al. Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk: The European
ProspectiveInvestigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2006. Pre Print Epub.
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