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Solid State Chemistry via Glass and Ceramics John Tanaka and Edward J. Neth Chemistry Department University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06269 Glass, Ceramics and Mankind History Discovered in prehistory by unknown inventor Reconstructions of old civilizations

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solid state chemistry via glass and ceramics

Solid State Chemistryvia Glass and Ceramics

John Tanaka and Edward J. Neth

Chemistry Department

University of Connecticut

Storrs, Connecticut 06269

slide2
Glass, Ceramics and Mankind
  • History
    • Discovered in prehistory by unknown inventor
    • Reconstructions of old civilizations
    • Food and beverage storage
current technology
Current technology
  • Fiber Optics
  • LC, electroluminescent, and plasma displays
  • Chemistry
  • Electric insulators
  • Superconductors
  • Electronic components
  • Household goods
glass
Glass
  • GLASS
  • Quartz
  • Coefficient of expansion 8 x 10−7 cm/cm/oC
  • Softening point 1500oC
  • 7740 Pyrex
  • 80.5% SiO2
  • 12.9% B2O3
  • 3.8% Na2O
  • 0.4% K2O
  • 2.2% Al2O3
  • Coefficient of expansion 33 x 10−7 cm/cm/oC
  • Softening point 820oC
  • Working point 1200oC
  • Container Glass
  • 74.1% SiO2
  • 1.8% Al2O3
  • 8.8% CaO
  • 1.4% MgO
  • 13.0% Na2O
  • 0.4% K2O
  • Coefficient of expansion 92 x 10−7 cm/cm/oC
  • Softening point 696 oC
  • Working point 1000 oC
quartz
Quartz
  • STRUCTURES OF SiO2
  • Quartz, α and β (to 870oC)
  • Tridymite ( 870oC to 1470oC)
  • Cristobalite (1470oC to 1710oC)
silicates
Silicates
  • SILICATE “ISLAND” STRUCTURES
  • Orthosilicates
    • Be2SiO4 phenacite
    • (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 olivine
    • ZrSiO4 zircon
    • R3IIR2III(SiO4)3 garnet
  • Pyrosilicates
    • Sc2Si2O7 Si-O-Si = 180o
    • Gd2Si2O7 Si-O-Si = 159o
    • Nd2Si2O7 Si-O-Si = 133o
  • Nets
    • 1 connection dimer as above
    • 2 connection chain or ring
    • 3-connection 2 dimensional “infinite” structure or 3 dimensional “infinite” structure
    • 4-connection 2 dimensional “infinite” structure or 3-dimensional “infinite” structure
representations
Representations
  • To understand the structure of a three dimensional solid, more than one representation is needed
  • It is not possible to display all structural elements using a single model
three views
Three Views
  • 1. Classical Molecular view of P4O10
more examples
More Examples
  • REPRESENTATIONS OF SOLID STATE STRUCTURES
  • Ball and Stick
  • P4O10 Picture
  • NaCl Picture
  • Zinc Blende Picture
  • Polyhedral
  • P4O10 Picture
  • NaCl Picture
  • Zinc Blende Picture
  • Close Packed
  • P4O10 Picture
  • NaCl Picture
  • Zinc Blende Picture
ceramics
Ceramics
  • Quartz
    • Shown earlier
  • Feldspar
  • Kaolin
ceramics21
Ceramics
  • FELDSPAR
  • Plagioclase feldspars
    • NaAlSi3O8 albite
    • CaAl2Si2O8 anorthite
  • Paracelsian
    • Ba(Al2Si2O8)
slide28
Nets
  • 4-connected, two dimensional net
    • HgI
  • 4-connected, three dimensional net
    • Diamond, zincblende shown earlier