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Development of new helmets to increase protection against severe injury/ head trauma Andrew McIntosh School of Safety of Risk and Safety Sciences, UNSW, Australia Acknowledgements to Dr. B Frechede, Ms. K Thai K and Mr D. Patton

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development of new helmets to increase protection against severe injury head trauma

Development of new helmets to increase protection against severe injury/ head trauma

Andrew McIntoshSchool of Safety of Risk and Safety Sciences, UNSW, Australia

Acknowledgements to Dr. B Frechede, Ms. K Thai K and Mr D. Patton

This project was funded by National Jockey Safety Committeeand the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

current concerns
Current concerns
  • Head and spinal injury risks amongst jockeys have been identified as an important issue in the racing industry
  • Current jockey helmets are typically assessed against performance standards catering to all equestrian helmets and riding activities
  • Impacts in racing are at the severe end of the spectrum of possible equestrian impacts.
current helmet standards
Current Helmet Standards
  • Jockeys and track work riders in NSW are currently required to wear helmets meeting one of the following standards:
    • AS/NZS 3838:2003 Helmets for horse-riding and horse related activities
    • ASTM F1163-01 Standard Specification for Headgear Used in Horse Sports and Horseback Riding
    • British Standard (BS) EN 1384/1996 (and onwards) Specification for helmets for equestrian activities
current performance requirements
Current Performance Requirements
  • In the Australian Standard, the peak acceleration measured at the headform centre of mass must not exceed 300 Gravities. AS/NZS 3838 includes two impact test configurations:
    • 1.5 metre drop on to the flat anvil
    • 1.3 metre drop on to the “V” anvil
    • Helmets are conditioned (wet, cold etc)
  • The ASTM F1163 and EN 1384 helmets offer similar levels of protection. ASTM has a 300 G requirement for a 1.8 metre drop on to the flat anvil, and a 1.3 metre drop on to the hazard anvil.
  • EN 1384 specifies a 250 G requirement for a 1.5 metre free fall drop on to the flat anvil only.
alternative standard high impact performance
Alternative Standard:High Impact Performance
  • In the European High Performance standard, helmet samples are exposed to 50˚C, -20˚C, UV radiation and water conditioning prior to testing. The Standard includes the following tests for impact energy attenuation and loading:
    • 2 metre drops on to the hazard and hemispherical anvils: 250G max. peak headform acceleration, >150G for max. 5 ms.
    • 3 metre drop on to the flat anvil: 250G max. peak headform acceleration, >150G for max. 5 ms.
    • 1 metre drop on to the flat anvil: 80G max. peak headform acceleration.
    • Resistance to penetration: 0.5 metre striker drop onto helmet, striker shall not leave an indentation on the test block.
    • Lateral crush: 180J lateral impact (7.5kg @ 2.45 metres), headform load shall not exceed 10kN.
  • Currently no helmet is made worldwide to meet this standard.
slide6
Aims
  • To assess the impact performance of current jockey helmets in standard laboratory tests
  • To assess whether any helmet met the requirements of the European High Performance Standard
  • To develop a prototype helmet to meet some performance requirements of the High Performance Standard
methods
Methods
  • Guided free-fall impact tests were conducted using a rigid headform
  • Drop heights were from 1 to 2.5 m
  • Flat, hemispherical and V-anvils were used
  • The maximum headform acceleration was the main output of interest.
helmets examples
Helmets (examples)

CHAMPION VENTAIR DELUXE JOCKEY HELMET

$250-$280 Aus

GPA JOCK-UP ONE JOCKEY HELMET

$850-$900 Aus

results flat anvil

Helmet tests on the flat anvil

500

400

300

Peak acceleration (G)

200

100

0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Drop height (m)

CVA Deluxe

LAS Country

GPA Jockup 1

Aussie 21

Liner less

New Derby Jockey

GPA Jockup 3

Results – Flat Anvil
results hemi and v anvils

Helmet tests on the hemispherical and V anvils

500

400

300

Peak acceleration (G)

200

100

0

Hemispherical 1.5m

Hemispherical 2m

V-anvil 1.5m

V-anvil 2m

Drop configuration

CVA Deluxe

LAS Country

GPA Jockup 1

Aussie 21

Linerless

New Derby Jockey

GPA Jockup 3

Results – Hemi and V anvils
discussion
Discussion
  • None of the current helmets meets the high performance standard requirements.
  • Helmets offer range of protection
    • Fair for 1 m drops
    • Good for 1.5 m drops
    • Fair for 2.5 m drops
    • Fair onto hemispherical and V-anvils
  • Retail price not correlated with performance
prototype development
Prototype Development
  • Helmet improvements required to increase performance range up to 3 m drops and onto more ‘aggressive’ anvils.
  • Continue to target all performance requirements while minimising helmet mass
  • The resistance to penetration requirement leads to the helmet having a distinct shell, but can influence the energy attenuation potential.
prototype development16
Prototype Development
  • Material Testing
  • Computer Modelling
  • Material Testing
  • Prototype Testing
example results computer modelling
Example ResultsComputer Modelling

Two different liner materialswere investigated.

Varying thickness, density and combinations

prototype testing
Prototype testing

Reference Helmet Prototype A Prototype B

summary
Summary
  • Prototype helmet
    • Promising results demonstrate potential to reduce the severity of the head impact and injury potential for the higher energy impacts
    • There is still work to be done to meet the high standard requirements of low (1 m) and high (3 m) drop tests.
    • Potential improvements to be discussed with manufacturer
    • Further prototype development and refinement with manufacturer input.