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Political Science Test 2. Fall 2007. Chapter 5. Question 01. What is the primary impact upon democratic institutions and elected officials of the political culture’s fixation with polls and polling?

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question 01
Question 01
  • What is the primary impact upon democratic institutions and elected officials of the political culture’s fixation with polls and polling?
  • It has made these American counterparts more like unstable parliamentary institutions in that the elected officials are not free to decide what to do and eventually held accountable.
question 02
Question 02
  • Definition: Political attitudes and core beliefs expressed by ordinary citizens as revealed by surveys.
  • public opinion
question 03
Question 03
  • According to the authors of Struggle for Democracy, the most important factor in constructing an accurate poll or survey is that....
  • the sample of people interviewed must be representative of the population being measured.
question 04
Question 04
  • Definition: The selection of survey respondents by chance, with equal probability, to ensure their representativeness of the whole population.
  • random sampling
question 05
Question 05
  • What error in calculation did General MacArthur in his dealings with President Truman?
  • He believed that Truman would be intimidated by the General’s stature as war hero.
question 06
Question 06
  • Until the passage of the 17th Amendment to the Constitution, how were U.S. Senators elected?
  • Elected by state legislatures.
question 07
Question 07
  • Definition: The role of the media in scrutinizing the actions of government officials.
  • watchdog
question 08
Question 08
  • What primary role does the media serve in a democratic republic like ours?
  • Their duty is to inform the people so they can make informed democratic decisions.
question 09
Question 09
  • What has changed in the past twenty-five years regarding the reporting of news on television which has negatively impacted the process?
  • The profit motive has overtaken news reporting leaving news staffs short and ratings the sole criteria of value.
question 10
Question 10
  • Definition: Sensational newspaper stories with large headlines and, in some cases, color cartoons.

yellow journalism

question 11
Question 11
  • The First Amendment of the Constitution says what about the press (that is, journalism)?
  • Gives broad protection from any form of government interference with the press.
question 12
Question 12
  • What was unique about the War in Vietnam?
  • It was the first time that the American public saw war’s carnage on a daily basis on television.
question 13
Question 13
  • Definition: A theory that locates the origins of interest groups in changes in the economic, social or political environment that threaten the well-being of some segment of the population.
  • disturbance theory
question 14
Question 14
  • Definition: Practice of appropriating money for specific pet projects of members of Congress.
  • ear-marking
question 15
Question 15
  • According to the text, Struggle for Democracy, the representation of business and the professions via interest groups is;
  • increasing
question 16
Question 16
  • What is the most notable negative impact of interest groups on the political process?
  • Along with information they offer large campaign contributions which have obligations attached.
question 17
Question 17
  • Definition: An entity created by an interest group whose purpose is to collect money and make contributions to candidates in federal elections. [Instructor’s note: As well as state and local elections]
  • political action committees (pacs)
question 18
Question 18
  • According to the chart on page 209 in the text, Struggle for Democracy, what industry spends the most on lobbying in the federal sector?
  • Health care
question 19
Question 19
  • What was the opinions of the Founders (the writers of the Constitution) regarding social movements?
  • They did not anticipate social movements because they were ignorant about democracy’s impact.
question 20
Question 20
  • Those Americans during the 19th Century who vigorously opposed slavery for religious and humanitarian reasons were:
  • Abolitionists
question 21
Question 21
  • An example of a negative social movement, that is, a social movement whose unintended impact proved to be largely negative, would be;
  • Prohibition
question 22
Question 22
  • The 40 hour week, overtime pay, minimum wage, the end of child employment, safe working conditions, worker’s benefits and unemployment insurance are all examples of what?
  • Examples of success by a social movement (labor) advocating the rights of working people.
question 23
Question 23
  • Definition: Intentionally breaking a law and accepting the consequence as a way to publicize the unjustness of the law.
  • civil disobedience
question 24
Question 24
  • When independent forces converge to produce significant social or political change, often described as portrayed in the book about weather, The Perfect Storm, what is that process called in social movements?
  • confluence of events
question 25
Question 25
  • From Reading Number 11, The Tyranny of the Majority by Lani Guiner, what aspect of majority rule is Dr. Guinier proposing be reconsidered or replaced?
  • winner-take-all majority rule
question 26
Question 26
  • From Reading Number 16, Congressional Government by President Woodrow Wilson, what was unique about President Wilson’s qualifications for the office of president?
  • he had earned a doctorate of philosophy
question 27
Question 27
  • From Reading Number 24, Stalemate by Sarah Binder, what is the primary cause of stalemate in Washington specifically and federal politics in general?
  • the division of the legislative branch into two distinct elected bodies
question 28
Question 28
  • From Reading Number 25, The “60 Vote Senate,” what is the source of the rule which requires 60 votes?
  • Senate rules which state that it takes 60 votes to shut down a filibuster
question 29
Question 29
  • From Reading #32, The Imperial Presidency by Arthur Schlesinger, what best summarizes this article?
  • During the past 100 years the presidents have taken on powers never intended by the Constitutional Framers.
question 30
Question 30
  • From Reading # 52, From Identity to Politics by Craig Rimmerman, the article describes what group as pursuing rights as a social and political movement?
  • gay and lesbian
question 31
Question 31
  • From Reading # 53, In Our Defense by Ellen Alderman and Caroline Kennedy, what choice below best summarizes this article?
  • Native American pursuing land issues as religious rights
question 32
Question 32
  • From Reading Number 60, The Semisovereign People by E.E. Schattschneider.– According to the author what kind of interest groups are most easily formed?
  • special interest groups
question 33
Question 33
  • From: Reading Number 61 – The End of Liberalism by Theodore Lowi.– According to Lowi, what class of people do most interest groups represent and ultimately increase their power in a democracy?
  • the elite
question 34
Question 34
  • From Reading Number 63, Who Will Tell The People by William Greider, the article discusses a group of poor workers trying to organize in Washington, D.C. What form of work did those poor workers do?
      • janitors & custodial
question 35
Question 35
  • From Reading Number 68, Government 2.0 by William Eggers, what choice below best summarizes this article? It describes:
  • how the Internet has impacted politics
question 36
Question 36
  • From Reading Number 73,Critical Elections and the Mainspring of American Politics, by Walter Dean Burnham – What is the essential component of a “critical election.”
  • When there is a dramatic shift in the relative power of the two major political parties.
question 37
Question 37
  • From Reading Number 59, Democracy in America by Alexis De Tocqueville.– What is significant about De Tocqueville’s work?
  • His insight into America’s character was profound
question 38
Question 38
  • From Reading Number 75, “The Rise of SouthernRepublicans,” by Earl Black and Merle Black– What impact has the rise of this group had on the American political landscape?
  • Republicans from the South have transformed American politics with their switch in party loyalties.
question 39
Question 39
  • What famous American novelist wrote about the horrors of World War I?
  • Ernest Hemingway
question 40
Question 40
  • 40) What American journalistic icon was the first to report from London during World War II?
  • Edward R. Murrow
question 41
Question 41
  • 41) Who was Ernie Pyle?
  • A popular journalist during World War II
question 42
Question 42
  • Which option most closely describes Homer Bigert?
  • A Korean War reporter who despite his speech impediment asked penetrating questions by playing stupid.
question 43
Question 43
  • In what war did David Halberstam report?
  • Vietnam
question 44
Question 44
  • From Time Magazine, “Ron Paul for President 2.0?” by Bill Tancer, what position does Paul presently hold?
  • Texas Congressman
question 45
Question 45
  • 45) From U.S. News & World Report, “Russia's Perplexing Iranian Strategy” by Thomas Omestad, in what setting or city did Russian President Vladimir Putin show his independence from U.S. policy on Iran?

Tehran

question 46
Question 46
  • From the BBC News, “Musharraf Vows Polls in February,” who is President Pervez Musharraf’s primary opposition regarding the imposition of a state of emergency? {Note: PM means Prime Minister}
  • Former PM Benazir Bhutto