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Operating System Virtualization. Adam Nofsinger. OS Virtualization. What is it? Brief History Why use it? Virtualization Software Shortcomings Future Tech. Virtualization. Definition:

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os virtualization
OS Virtualization
  • What is it?
  • Brief History
  • Why use it?
  • Virtualization Software
  • Shortcomings
  • Future Tech
virtualization
Virtualization
  • Definition:
    • Broadly describes the (beneficial) separation of a resource or service from the typical physical means of providing it.
      • Examples:
        • Virtual Memory
        • Virtual Private Networks
        • Java Virtual Machine
virtualization1

Guest OS

Guest OS

Guest OS

Virtual Layer

Host OS

Hardware

Virtualization
  • OS Virtualization (Virtual Machines)
    • Separate OS from Physical Hardware
    • Host OS  Guest OS
virtualization techniques
Virtualization Techniques
  • How does Guest OS get to Hardware?

Guest OS

Virtual Layer

Host OS

Hardware

Processor – Memory – NIC – Disk

virtualization techniques1
Virtualization Techniques
  • Virtual Monitor
      • Qemu, Vmware Player, Microsoft Virtual PC
      • Sometimes called Emulation, e.g. x86 Emulation

Guest OS

Guest OS

Guest OS

Virtual Monitor

Host OS

Hardware

virtualization techniques2
Virtualization Techniques
  • Hypervisor
      • Vmware ESX Server, Parallels*

OS

OS

OS

Hypervisor Software

Hardware

virtualization techniques3
Virtualization Techniques
  • Para-Virtualization
      • Xen, Vmware Tools*

Guest OS

(Modified)

Guest OS

(Modified)

Guest OS

(Modified)

Virtual Monitor

Host OS

Hardware

one slide history
One Slide History
  • 1960s
      • IBM’s Mainframe Computers (e.g. IBM S/360)
        • Compatible Time Sharing System (CTSS)
  • 1980s
      • Desktop PC  Virtualization on Backburner
  • 1990s - Present
      • IA-32 Server Hardware  High Profit Market
      • Virtualization  Increased Hardware value.
      • Vmware Introduces Workstation
why os virtualization
Why OS Virtualization?
  • Multi-Platform Testing
    • Only need one set of Hardware
      • Resource saver on purchases (time/money)
      • Can cut setup time
  • Emulated Hardware
    • Same Hardware on All Test Environments
    • Hardware Simulation
    • Limited Resource Environments
why os virtualization1
Why OS Virtualization?
  • Isolation
    • Virtual Machine from Host OS / Other VMs
    • Safe for “untrusted” applications.
    • Partitioning of Services
      • Server Environment more stable.
      • Some Applications don’t play w/ Others
  • Encapsulation
    • One VM  One File/Folder on Disk
    • Typically easy to migrate.
why os virtualization2
Why OS Virtualization?
  • OS Debugging
    • Crash on Developing OS do not (typically) affect Host OS.
    • Debug
      • Memory dumps
      • CPU Registers
      • Serial / Parallel Port dumps
  • Multiple OS Instances Simultaneously
    • Infrastructure Testing
      • Win 98  Linux  OpenBSD  Win 2K
why os virtualization3
Why OS Virtualization?
  • Legacy Applications
  • Server Application Virtualization Testing
    • Some application commonly on VMs
  • Portability Requirements Lessen
    • Down with Host OS!
  • Virtualization is Fun!
    • Gain Experience with new OS.
    • Help a business transition to Open-Source.
virtualization software
Virtualization Software
  • Vmware
      • Server
      • Player
      • Workstation
      • ESX Server
  • Qemu
  • Xen
  • Microsoft Virtual PC/Server
      • Connectix
vmware server
Vmware Server
  • Currently Free! (But Geared toward Server)
  • Unique Features vs. Workstation
    • Remote Administration
      • Consoles
      • Web Interface
    • VMs can Run as Service
  • Slow to Administrate
    • Especially GUI style (e.g. X, Windows)
  • Can make VMs for Vmware Player
vmware player
Vmware Player
  • Demo Time!
vmware workstation
Vmware WorkStation
  • Geared more toward Software Developers
  • Features vs. Vmware Server
    • Multiple Snapshots
    • Cloning
    • Movie Recording
    • Teams & VPNs
  • $200/license

http://www.vmware.com/img/ws5_large4.png

vmware esx server
Vmware ESX Server
  • Intended for Enterprise-Level Servers
    • Partitioning
  • Hypervisor
    • Runs on “Bare Metal” (Hardware Layer)
  • Live Migration
slide27
QEMU
  • Demo Time!
slide28
Xen
  • Open-Source, Linux
  • Para-Virtualization
    • Very Fast
    • Have to use Modified Guest OS
      • Kernel Modifications
      • Windows?
  • Live Migration
microsoft virtual pc server
Microsoft Virtual PC / Server
  • The VM Software Formerly Known as Connectix Virtual PC
  • Runs on x86 or Power PC Architecture
  • PC: $130
  • Server: $100 - $200 (#of processor)
other offerings
Other Offerings
  • Bochs IA-32 Emulator
    • http://bochs.sourceforge.net/
  • Linux-VServer
    • http://linux-vserver.org/
  • Virtuozzo => Server Virtualization, $200 - $4000+
    • http://www.swsoft.com/en/products/virtuozzo/
  • OpenVZ => Open Source Virtuozzo
    • http://openvz.org/
  • Parallels Workstation 2.0 => Hypervisor-Powered, $49 / license
    • http://www.parallels.com/
  • TRANGO – RTOS Hypervisor, ARM, MIPS, PowerPC, etc.
    • http://www.trango-systems.com/
general shortcomings
General Shortcomings
  • Virtual Machine cannot represent real scenario 100% accurately.
    • Especially true with Para-Virtualization.
    • Most situations  close enough.
  • Guest OS Hardware Requirements.
    • Host needs more RAM, HD Space, etc.
      • Sometimes just to operate
general shortcomings1
General Shortcomings
  • Intel IA-32  Virtualization Problems
    • More on this in a bit (Vanderpool)
  • Some Hardware not supported
    • USB (Sometimes)
    • 3D Graphics Cards
    • Etc.
future tech
Future Tech
  • Intel VT (aka “Vanderpool”)
    • Virtual Machine Extensions (VMX)
      • 10 new virtualization specific instructions
      • VMXON, VMXOFF
      • VMLAUNCH, VMRESUME
    • BIOS / VMM application in the works

OS

OS

OS

Virtual Layer

Virtual CPU

Virtual CPU

Virtual CPU

future tech1
Future Tech
  • AMD VT (aka “Pacifica”)
    • Similar to Intel
      • Additions to x86 Architecture to better support VMs

http://enterprise.amd.com/Downloads/Pacifica_en.pdf

references
References
  • Amit Sing, An Introduction to Virtualization
    • http://www.kernelthread.com/publications/virtualization/
  • Vmware, Virtualization Overview
    • http://www.vmware.com/virtualization/
  • Vmware, Virtualization White Paper
    • http://www.vmware.com/pdf/virtualization.pdf [pdf]
  • Cambridge University Systems Research Group, Xen Website
    • http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/Research/SRG/netos/xen/
  • Microsoft, Virtual PC Website
    • http://www.microsoft.com/windows/virtualpc/default.mspx
  • Bochs Website
    • http://bochs.sourceforge.net/
  • Gabriel Torres, Intel Virtualization Technology (VT) Explained
    • http://www.hardwaresecrets.com/printpage/263
  • AMD, “Pacifica” Virtualization Technology
    • http://enterprise.amd.com/Downloads/Pacifica_en.pdf [pdf]