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Network, Internet and World Wide Web Essential Concepts Natalia Mosina - 2005 Network Most people work in a network environment

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Network, Internet and World Wide Web

Essential Concepts

Natalia Mosina - 2005


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Network

  • Most people work in a network environment

    A network is a collection of computers connected together with special hardware and software to manage it.

    LAN – local area network (small area)

    WAN – wide area network (long distances)


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From LAN to WAN

(a) Home Network

(b) Local Area Network


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From LAN to WAN (continued)

(c) Wide Area Network


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The Internet

  • A network of networks,

    interconnected collection of networks

  • Began in 1960s as government (military) project

  • It is a hardware!

    Consists of computers and the communications links that connect them

The World Wide Web

  • A subset of the Internet consisting of all computers with hypertext or hypermedia documents

  • These documents contain references (links) to other documents which may be on a different computer anywhere in the world

  • Began in 1991 at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland


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The World Wide Web

  • Began in 1991 at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland

  • It is a software!

    Consists of different files, documents, and software that stores and retrieves those files.

    Web is a collection of files that reside on Web Servers that are located all over the world.


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Client vs. Server

  • When you connect to Internet to become part of the web, your computer becomes a Web client in a worldwide client/server network.

  • Web browser is the software that you run on your computer to make it work as a Web client.


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A Client/Server Model

  • A server (Web server or Web site) is any computer that stores documents and furnishes them upon request

  • A client is any computer that requests services (requests and then displays documents )

  • Every client must be able to display every document from every server and does so through a browser (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer)


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Acronyms

  • HTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol is used to transmit Web documents

  • HTML – HyperText Markup Language is the language for all Web documents

  • ISP – Internet service provider

  • IP - Internet protocol

  • TCP - Transmission Control protocol

  • DNS – Domain Name System


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Connecting to the Internet

  • At Work or School

    • Via a Local Area Network

  • At Home

    • Traditional Modem (56Kbps)

    • Cable Modem

      • Uses TV cable

      • Requires network card

    • DSL Modem

      • Voice and data on the same line

      • Requires network card


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Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

http://www.prenhall.com/reed/index.html

Name of the page

Or document

Web Server

Protocol

(means of access)

Directory where the

Page is stored


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URL

  • Top-level domains include “edu,” “gov,” and “org,” but “com” is most common

  • Examples:

    • www.microsoft.com

    • www.nba.com

    • www.whitehouse.gov

    • www.miami.edu


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E-Mail (Electronic Mail)

  • E-mail is simply a means of sending messages via computer

  • Business is using more e-mail and fax

  • To access, you must have a mail server and/or software

  • Each person has a username and pass-word

  • All mail programs allow you to Send, Compose, Reply, and Forward


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An E-mail Address

  • Every e-mail address is unique and consists of two parts, a user name and a host computer:

    • johndoe@anyschool.edu

  • The@ sign is required

  • The host computer can be omitted if you are logged onto the same network or host computer