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Network, Internet and World Wide Web Essential Concepts Natalia Mosina - 2005 Network Most people work in a network environment

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Network, Internet and World Wide Web

Essential Concepts

Natalia Mosina - 2005

  • Most people work in a network environment

A network is a collection of computers connected together with special hardware and software to manage it.

LAN – local area network (small area)

WAN – wide area network (long distances)

from lan to wan
From LAN to WAN

(a) Home Network

(b) Local Area Network

from lan to wan continued
From LAN to WAN (continued)

(c) Wide Area Network


The Internet

  • A network of networks,

interconnected collection of networks

  • Began in 1960s as government (military) project
  • It is a hardware!

Consists of computers and the communications links that connect them

The World Wide Web

  • A subset of the Internet consisting of all computers with hypertext or hypermedia documents
  • These documents contain references (links) to other documents which may be on a different computer anywhere in the world
  • Began in 1991 at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland

The World Wide Web

  • Began in 1991 at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland
  • It is a software!

Consists of different files, documents, and software that stores and retrieves those files.

Web is a collection of files that reside on Web Servers that are located all over the world.

client vs server
Client vs. Server
  • When you connect to Internet to become part of the web, your computer becomes a Web client in a worldwide client/server network.
  • Web browser is the software that you run on your computer to make it work as a Web client.

A Client/Server Model

  • A server (Web server or Web site) is any computer that stores documents and furnishes them upon request
  • A client is any computer that requests services (requests and then displays documents )
  • Every client must be able to display every document from every server and does so through a browser (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer)


  • HTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol is used to transmit Web documents
  • HTML – HyperText Markup Language is the language for all Web documents
  • ISP – Internet service provider
  • IP - Internet protocol
  • TCP - Transmission Control protocol
  • DNS – Domain Name System

Connecting to the Internet

  • At Work or School
    • Via a Local Area Network
  • At Home
    • Traditional Modem (56Kbps)
    • Cable Modem
      • Uses TV cable
      • Requires network card
    • DSL Modem
      • Voice and data on the same line
      • Requires network card

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

Name of the page

Or document

Web Server


(means of access)

Directory where the

Page is stored



  • Top-level domains include “edu,” “gov,” and “org,” but “com” is most common
  • Examples:

E-Mail (Electronic Mail)

  • E-mail is simply a means of sending messages via computer
  • Business is using more e-mail and fax
  • To access, you must have a mail server and/or software
  • Each person has a username and pass-word
  • All mail programs allow you to Send, Compose, Reply, and Forward

An E-mail Address

  • Every e-mail address is unique and consists of two parts, a user name and a host computer:
  • The@ sign is required
  • The host computer can be omitted if you are logged onto the same network or host computer