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The Internet and World Wide Web

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  1. The Internet andWorld Wide Web Chapter 2

  2. Objectives Discuss how the Internet works Understand ways to access the Internet Identify a URL Describe the uses of e-commerce Identify the tools required for Web publishing Explain how e-mail, FTP, newsgroups and message boards, mailing lists, chat rooms and instant messaging work

  3. A collection of computers and other devices connected together via communications Modems Cables Telephone lines Satellites The Internet or the Net A worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals

  4. instant messaging e-mail Web message board chat file transfer The Services on the Internet

  5. History of the Internet APRANET • ARPANET: Networking project by Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) • Goals: • To allow scientists at different locations to share information and work together on military and scientific projects • To function even if part of the network were disabled or destroyed • Became functional in 1969

  6. Any computer that directly connects to a network Often stores and transfers data and messages Provides network connections for other computers Four original nodes on ARPANET UCLA UC – Santa Barbara Stanford Research Institute University of Utah ARPANETA host node or a host

  7. How has this network grown? • 1969: Four host nodes • 1984: More than 1,000 host nodes • 2004: More than 100 million host nodes

  8. What is NSFnet? The National Science Foundation’s network Five supercomputer centers Connected to ARPANET in 1986 NSFnet + APRANET = The Internet

  9. Who provides the structure for the Internet today? Networks from corporations, commercial firms, and other companies Telephone companies Cable companies Satellite companies Government

  10. Who controls the Internet? The Internet is a public, cooperative, and independent network No single entity controls or owns the Internet Several organizations advise and define standards W3C – oversees research and sets standards and guidelines Internet 2 – develops and tests advanced Internet technologies

  11. Internet service provider (ISP) A business that has a permanent Internet connection Provides temporary connections to individuals and companies for free or for a fee Regional ISP - Provides access to the Internet through one or more telephone numbers local to a specific geographic location National ISP - Provides local telephone numbers in most major cities and towns nationwide

  12. How can you connect to the Internet? High speed connection Connect to service provider through a high-speed connection line leased from local telephone company Dial-up access Computer, modem, regular telephone line Dial into an ISP Newer high-speed technologies DSL Cable modem

  13. Three parts of an Internet connection Server • Computer that manages the resources on a network • Provides a centralized storage area for resources • Also called a host computer Backbone • Inner structure of the Internet • Communications lines that carry the heaviest amount of traffic Client • Computer that can access the contents of the storage area on the server

  14. Internet protocol (IP) address Number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet Four groups of numbers, each separated by a period Number in each group is between 0 and 255 199.95.72.10

  15. What is a domain name? Text version of an IP address Components are separated by periods Each domain name represents one or more IP addresses 199.95.72.10 www.course.com

  16. A top-level domain (TLD) abbreviation Identifies the type of organization associated with the domain Sometimes called dot com when TLD is com

  17. What systems control domain names? Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Group that assigns and controls TLDs Domain name system (DNS) stores the domain names and their corresponding IP addresses DNS server Translates the domain name into its associated IP address

  18. World Wide Web (WWW) or the Web A worldwide collection of electronic documents Each document on the Web is called a Web page Can contain text, graphics, sound, and video Can contain built-in connections to other documents A Web site is a collection of related Web pages

  19. What is a Web browser? • Software program that allows you to access and view Web pages • Some popular browsers • Firefox (47.4%) • Internet Explorer (39.3%) • Chrome (7%) • Safari (3.3%)

  20. What is downloading? The process of receiving information, such as a Web page, onto your computer from a server on the Internet Can take from a few seconds to several minutes

  21. What is a hyperlink? Also called a link Built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page Allows you to obtain information in a nonlinear way

  22. How can you identify a link? Link can be a word, phrase, or image Text links usually are underlined or in a color different from the rest of the document A graphical link may change its appearance when you point to it • The shape of the pointer on the screen changes to a small hand with a pointing index finger when you position it on a link or point to the link • Click the link to activate it

  23. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Browser retrieves a Web page by using the URL Also called a Web address http://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/index.html address text box

  24. What are the parts of a URL? filename path protocol domain name http://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/index.html Next Click to view Web Link then click URLs p. 2.13 Fig. 2-10

  25. What is a search engine? A software program you can use to find Web sites, Web pages and Internet files

  26. What is a portal Web page Often called a portal Offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location

  27. What services are often found on a portal? search engine e-mail sports and weather newsgroups or message boards local , national, and worldwide news instant messaging stock quotes reference tools maps free personal Web pages chat rooms shopping malls and auctions calendars

  28. A Graphic on the WebA digital representation of information such as a drawing, chart, or photograph

  29. What is audio? What is MP3? Music, speech, or any other sound • A popular technology that compresses audio • Reduces an audio file to about one-tenth of its original size Streaming audio enables you to listen to the sound as it downloads

  30. What is video? Consists of full-motion images that are played back at various speeds Most video also has accompanying audio • MPEG standard:Video files that you must download completely before you can play them on the computer • Streaming video: allows you to view live video images as they download • RealVideo • Windows Media Player

  31. What is electronic commerce? A business transaction that occurs over the Internet B2C: Sale of goods to the general public • B2B: Businesses providing goods and services to other businesses

  32. What are some features ofe-commerce? Electronic storefront The place where a customer visits an online business Shopping cart Allows the customer to collect purchases

  33. Web page authoring HTML (hypertext markup language) A set of special codes that format a file for use as a Web page Created with either: Word processing package Web page authoring software

  34. What is a plug-in? An additional program that extends the capability of a browser

  35. How do you deploy a Web site? Locate a Web server to store your site • Provided by many ISPs at no additional cost • Provided by a Web hosting service for a monthly fee Upload, or copy, the site to the Web server

  36. What is e-mail? The transmission of messages and files via a computer network Use an e-mail program to work with messages create forward send print receive store delete

  37. What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)? An Internet standard that allows you to upload and download files with other computers on the Internet File Transfer Protocol

  38. What is instant messaging (IM)? A real-time Internet communications service Notifies you when one or more people are online Allows you to exchange messages or files or join a private chat with them