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The Internet and World Wide Web Chapter 2 Objectives Discuss how the Internet works Understand ways to access the Internet Identify a URL Describe the uses of e-commerce Identify the tools required for Web publishing Explain how e-mail, FTP, newsgroups and message

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Discuss how the Internet works

Understand ways to access the Internet

Identify a URL

Describe the uses of e-commerce

Identify the tools required for Web publishing

Explain how e-mail, FTP, newsgroups and message

boards, mailing lists, chat rooms and instant

messaging work

the internet or the net
A collection of computers and other devices connected together via communications



Telephone lines


The Internet or the Net

A worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals

the services on the internet

instant messaging



message board


file transfer

The Services on the Internet

History of the Internet


  • ARPANET: Networking project by Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
  • Goals:
    • To allow scientists at different locations to share information and work together on military and scientific projects
    • To function even if part of the network were disabled or destroyed
  • Became functional in 1969
arpanet a host node or a host
Any computer that directly connects to a network

Often stores and transfers data and messages

Provides network connections for other computers

Four original nodes on ARPANET


UC – Santa Barbara

Stanford Research Institute

University of Utah

ARPANETA host node or a host
how has this network grown
How has this network grown?
  • 1969: Four host nodes
  • 1984: More than 1,000 host nodes
  • 2004: More than 100 million host nodes
What is NSFnet?

The National Science Foundation’s network

Five supercomputer centers

Connected to ARPANET in 1986

NSFnet + APRANET = The Internet

Who provides the structure for

the Internet today?

Networks from corporations, commercial firms, and other companies

Telephone companies

Cable companies

Satellite companies


Who controls the Internet?

The Internet is a public, cooperative, and independent network

No single entity controls or owns the Internet

Several organizations advise and define standards

W3C – oversees research and sets standards and guidelines

Internet 2 – develops and tests advanced Internet technologies

Internet service provider (ISP)

A business that has a permanent Internet connection

Provides temporary connections to individuals and companies for free or for a fee

Regional ISP - Provides access to the Internet through one or more telephone numbers local to a specific geographic location

National ISP - Provides local telephone numbers in most major cities and towns nationwide

How can you connect to the Internet?

High speed connection

Connect to service provider through a high-speed connection line leased from local telephone company

Dial-up access

Computer, modem, regular telephone line

Dial into an ISP

Newer high-speed technologies


Cable modem

Three parts of an Internet connection


  • Computer that manages the resources on a network
  • Provides a centralized storage area for resources
  • Also called a host computer


  • Inner structure of the Internet
  • Communications lines that carry the heaviest amount of traffic


  • Computer that can access the contents of the storage area on the server
Internet protocol (IP) address

Number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet

Four groups of numbers, each separated by a period

Number in each group is between 0 and 255

What is a domain name?

Text version of an IP address

Components are separated by periods

Each domain name represents one or more IP addresses

A top-level domain (TLD) abbreviation

Identifies the type of organization associated with the domain

Sometimes called dot com when TLD is com

What systems control domain names?

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

Group that assigns and controls TLDs

Domain name system (DNS)

stores the domain names and their corresponding IP addresses

DNS server

Translates the domain name into its associated IP address

World Wide Web (WWW) or the Web

A worldwide collection of electronic documents

Each document on the Web is called a Web page

Can contain text, graphics, sound, and video

Can contain built-in connections to other documents

A Web site is a collection of related Web pages

What is a Web browser?
  • Software program that allows you to access and view Web pages
  • Some popular browsers
    • Firefox (47.4%)
    • Internet Explorer (39.3%)
    • Chrome (7%)
    • Safari (3.3%)
What is downloading?

The process of receiving information, such as a Web page, onto your computer from a server on the Internet

Can take from a few seconds to several minutes

What is a hyperlink?

Also called a link

Built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page

Allows you to obtain information in a nonlinear way

How can you identify a link?

Link can be a word, phrase, or image

Text links usually are underlined or in a color different from the rest of the document

A graphical link may change its appearance when you point to it

  • The shape of the pointer on the screen changes to a small hand with a pointing index finger when you position it on a link or point to the link
  • Click the link to activate it
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

Browser retrieves a Web page by using the URL

Also called a Web address

address text box

What are the parts of a URL?




domain name


Click to view Web Link

then click URLs

p. 2.13 Fig. 2-10

What is a search engine?

A software program you can use to find Web sites, Web pages and Internet files

What is a portal Web page

Often called a portal

Offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location

What services are often found on a portal?

search engine


sports and weather

newsgroups or message boards

local , national, and worldwide news

instant messaging

stock quotes

reference tools


free personal Web pages

chat rooms

shopping malls and auctions


A Graphic on the WebA digital representation of information such as a drawing, chart, or photograph
What is audio? What is MP3?

Music, speech, or any other sound

  • A popular technology that compresses audio
  • Reduces an audio file to about one-tenth of its original size

Streaming audio

enables you to listen to the sound as it downloads

What is video?

Consists of full-motion images that are played back at various speeds

Most video also has accompanying audio

  • MPEG standard:Video files that you must download completely before you can play them on the computer
  • Streaming video: allows you to view live video images as they download
    • RealVideo
    • Windows Media Player
What is electronic commerce?

A business transaction that occurs over the Internet

B2C: Sale of goods to the general public

  • B2B: Businesses providing goods and services to other businesses
What are some features ofe-commerce?

Electronic storefront

The place where a customer visits an online business

Shopping cart

Allows the customer to collect purchases

Web page authoring

HTML (hypertext markup language)

A set of special codes that format a file for use as a Web page

Created with either:

Word processing package

Web page authoring software

What is a plug-in?

An additional program that extends the capability of a browser

How do you deploy a Web site?

Locate a Web server to store your site

  • Provided by many ISPs at no additional cost
  • Provided by a Web hosting service for a monthly fee

Upload, or copy, the site to the Web server

What is e-mail?

The transmission of messages and files via a computer network

Use an e-mail program to work with messages








What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)?

An Internet standard that allows you to upload and download files with other computers on the Internet File Transfer Protocol

What is instant messaging (IM)?

A real-time Internet communications service

Notifies you when one or more people are online

Allows you to exchange messages or files or join a private chat with them