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  1. Unit 3 Review 600 CE—1450 CE

  2. 1. Islam means • “dedication to Allah.” • “victory.” • “submission.” • “peace.” • “people of the book.”

  3. 1. Islam means • “dedication to Allah.” • “victory.” • “submission.” • “peace.” • “people of the book.”

  4. 2. Which of the following statements concerning the ethical system of early Islam is NOT correct? • Islam stressed the dignity of all believers and their equality in the eyes of Allah. • Islam stressed the responsibility of the wealthy and strong to care for the poor and weak. • A tax for charity was obligatory in the new faith. • The teachings of the Prophet and the Quran were not formally incorporated into a body of law. • It recognized the truth of similar ethical ideas in Judaism and Christianity.

  5. 2. Which of the following statements concerning the ethical system of early Islam is NOT correct? • Islam stressed the dignity of all believers and their equality in the eyes of Allah. • Islam stressed the responsibility of the wealthy and strong to care for the poor and weak. • A tax for charity was obligatory in the new faith. • The teachings of the Prophet and the Quran were not formally incorporated into a body of law. • It recognized the truth of similar ethical ideas in Judaism and Christianity.

  6. 3. Why did the Arab warriors not want to convert large numbers of people to Islam? • Muhammad specifically stated that Islam could only be spread among the Arabs. • They would have had to share their booty and would have lost tax revenues. • They lacked the political organization to govern them and feared insurrection by non-Arabs. • Conversion would have slowed down the process of conquest. • They wanted to keep high religious offices among themselves.

  7. 3. Why did the Arab warriors not want to convert large numbers of people to Islam? • Muhammad specifically stated that Islam could only be spread among the Arabs. • They would have had to share their booty and would have lost tax revenues. • They lacked the political organization to govern them and feared insurrection by non-Arabs. • Conversion would have slowed down the process of conquest. • They wanted to keep high religious offices among themselves.

  8. 4. What was the result of the first civil war between Ali and the Umayyads? • Ali was able to defeat the Umayyad clan and reduce them to political insignificance. • Ali was killed in the conflict, but his son Hasan was named caliph and won a great victory over the Abbasids. • Despite early successes, Ali’s faction disintegrated leading to an Umayyad victory and Ali’s assassination. • Ali suffered a disastrous military defeat at the Battle of Siffin, and the Umayyads emerged victorious. • Islam remained firmly united behind the heirs of Husayn and Ali.

  9. 4. What was the result of the first civil war between Ali and the Umayyads? • Ali was able to defeat the Umayyad clan and reduce them to political insignificance. • Ali was killed in the conflict, but his son Hasan was named caliph and won a great victory over the Abbasids. • Despite early successes, Ali’s faction disintegrated leading to an Umayyad victory and Ali’s assassination. • Ali suffered a disastrous military defeat at the Battle of Siffin, and the Umayyads emerged victorious. • Islam remained firmly united behind the heirs of Husayn and Ali.

  10. 5. What was the nature of citizenship within the Umayyad Empire? • All converts to Islam, regardless of their ethnic origins, were full citizens and members of the elite. • Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire. • The Umayyads recognized all residents of their empire, whether Muslims or “peoples of he book” as full citizens. • Arabs rapidly lost their dominance in the Umayyad Empire to the native residents of Persia. • Malawi were accorded full rights of citizenship.

  11. 5. What was the nature of citizenship within the Umayyad Empire? • All converts to Islam, regardless of their ethnic origins, were full citizens and members of the elite. • Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire. • The Umayyads recognized all residents of their empire, whether Muslims or “peoples of he book” as full citizens. • Arabs rapidly lost their dominance in the Umayyad Empire to the native residents of Persia. • Malawi were accorded full rights of citizenship.

  12. 6. What was the most significant of the transformations brought about by the Abbasids’ rise to power? • The final defeat of the Byzantine Empire with the capture of Constantinople • The mawali were admitted as full members of the Islamic community • The destruction of absolutism within Islamic government • The destruction of Sunni influences within Islam • Victory in the Crusades and the conquest of Spain

  13. 6. What was the most significant of the transformations brought about by the Abbasids’ rise to power? • The final defeat of the Byzantine Empire with the capture of Constantinople • The mawali were admitted as full members of the Islamic community • The destruction of absolutism within Islamic government • The destruction of Sunni influences within Islam • Victory in the Crusades and the conquest of Spain

  14. 7. What was the primary cultural contribution of the Muslims during the Abbasid period? • The Muslims were able to recover and preserve the works of the ancient philosophers as well as transmit ideas and culture from one civilization to another. • The Muslims became extraordinarily adept at portraiture, focusing on depictions of Muhammad and the early caliphs. • Although the material culture of the Abbasid period remained poor, Muslims were able to make some advances in music. • Islamic learning was necessarily unique, as they had no access to the ancient traditions of philosophy and science. • Islamic culture combined the achievements of earlier civilizations such as the Harappan and the Aryans.

  15. 7. What was the primary cultural contribution of the Muslims during the Abbasid period? • The Muslims were able to recover and preserve the works of the ancient philosophers as well as transmit ideas and culture from one civilization to another. • The Muslims became extraordinarily adept at portraiture, focusing on depictions of Muhammad and the early caliphs. • Although the material culture of the Abbasid period remained poor, Muslims were able to make some advances in music. • Islamic learning was necessarily unique, as they had no access to the ancient traditions of philosophy and science. • Islamic culture combined the achievements of earlier civilizations such as the Harappan and the Aryans.

  16. 8. What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid? • The Abbasid dynasty came to an end with the defeat in the Battle of Zamzam. • Succession disputes led to the build up of personal armies, often of slave soldiers. • Private armies were abolished in an attempt to curtail future violence over the succession. • The practice of electing caliphs in Mecca was once again instituted. • The Shi’as were able to take over the throne with the election of Ali.

  17. 8. What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid? • The Abbasid dynasty came to an end with the defeat in the Battle of Zamzam. • Succession disputes led to the build up of personal armies, often of slave soldiers. • Private armies were abolished in an attempt to curtail future violence over the succession. • The practice of electing caliphs in Mecca was once again instituted. • The Shi’as were able to take over the throne with the election of Ali.

  18. 9. What changes occurred during the Abbasid period with respect to women? • The establishment of the harem • The legislation of multiple marriages for women • The creation of Islamic nunneries • Legislation against concubinage and prostitution • Women were allowed to take more than one husband.

  19. 9. What changes occurred during the Abbasid period with respect to women? • The establishment of the harem • The legislation of multiple marriages for women • The creation of Islamic nunneries • Legislation against concubinage and prostitution • Women were allowed to take more than one husband.

  20. 10. Who was the Muslim leader responsible for the reconquest of most of the territories belonging to the Christian crusaders? • Firdawsi • Muhammad ibn Qasim • al-Ghazali • Saladin • Umar

  21. 10. Who was the Muslim leader responsible for the reconquest of most of the territories belonging to the Christian crusaders? • Firdawsi • Muhammad ibn Qasim • al-Ghazali • Saladin • Umar

  22. 11. What was the impact of the Crusades on the Christian West? • Christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things. • Christians rejected most Muslim influence, although they did gain a taste for Muslim wines and liquors. • There was no Muslim influence on the Christian West. • The Crusades interrupted the trade of the Mediterranean and cut off the West from Islam until 1293. • The Crusades led to an extension of feudalism through the use of Islamic silver.

  23. 11. What was the impact of the Crusades on the Christian West? • Christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things. • Christians rejected most Muslim influence, although they did gain a taste for Muslim wines and liquors. • There was no Muslim influence on the Christian West. • The Crusades interrupted the trade of the Mediterranean and cut off the West from Islam until 1293. • The Crusades led to an extension of feudalism through the use of Islamic silver.

  24. 12. How did Islam and Hinduism differ? • Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Islam was more rigid in terms of orthodox belief. • Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism was more rigid in terms of orthodox belief. • Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system. • Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Islam embraced a caste-based social system. • Hinduism was monotheistic, while Islam was polytheistic but both had a supreme God.

  25. 12. How did Islam and Hinduism differ? • Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Islam was more rigid in terms of orthodox belief. • Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism was more rigid in terms of orthodox belief. • Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system. • Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Islam embraced a caste-based social system. • Hinduism was monotheistic, while Islam was polytheistic but both had a supreme God.

  26. 13. What was one of the major differences between African civilizations and other post classical societies? • African civilizations were built somewhat less clearly on prior precedent than was the case in other post-classical societies. • African civilization was almost entirely dependent on cultural importations from Islam and the Arabic world. • Prior to 800, African civilizations had no prior contacts with civilizations outside of the African continent. • There were no civilizations in Africa until after the post classical period. • African civilizations were based on hierarchal and patrilineal models not democratic and matrilineal.

  27. 13. What was one of the major differences between African civilizations and other post classical societies? • African civilizations were built somewhat less clearly on prior precedent than was the case in other post-classical societies. • African civilization was almost entirely dependent on cultural importations from Islam and the Arabic world. • Prior to 800, African civilizations had no prior contacts with civilizations outside of the African continent. • There were no civilizations in Africa until after the post classical period. • African civilizations were based on hierarchal and patrilineal models not democratic and matrilineal.

  28. 14. Which of the following statements best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-Saharan Africa? • Much of sub-Saharan Africa was Christian but later converted to Islam under military pressure. • Animistic religion, belief in the power of natural forces personified as deities, characterized much of Africa. • African religion prior to the arrival of the Muslims was typified by an independent form of monotheism characterized by worship in monumental temple complexes. • Uniquely, African societies lacked any religious principles prior to the arrival of the Christians and Muslims. • Sub-Saharan groups were influenced by Hindu beliefs brought in through east African trading ports such as Kilwa.

  29. 14. Which of the following statements best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-Saharan Africa? • Much of sub-Saharan Africa was Christian but later converted to Islam under military pressure. • Animistic religion, belief in the power of natural forces personified as deities, characterized much of Africa. • African religion prior to the arrival of the Muslims was typified by an independent form of monotheism characterized by worship in monumental temple complexes. • Uniquely, African societies lacked any religious principles prior to the arrival of the Christians and Muslims. • Sub-Saharan groups were influenced by Hindu beliefs brought in through east African trading ports such as Kilwa.

  30. 15. What region of Africa was first converted to Islam by 700 C.E.? • East Africa • Central Africa • West Africa • North Africa • South Africa

  31. 15. What region of Africa was first converted to Islam by 700 C.E.? • East Africa • Central Africa • West Africa • North Africa • South Africa

  32. 16. What was the most important Christian kingdom in Africa? • Mali • Songhay • Kongo • Ethiopia • Egypt

  33. 16. What was the most important Christian kingdom in Africa? • Mali • Songhay • Kongo • Ethiopia • Egypt

  34. 17. What monarch is credited with beginning Malinke expansion and creating the Mali Empire? • Sundiata • Mahmud of Ghur • Mansa Musa • King Lalibela • Muhammad the Great

  35. 17. What monarch is credited with beginning Malinke expansion and creating the Mali Empire? • Sundiata • Mahmud of Ghur • Mansa Musa • King Lalibela • Muhammad the Great

  36. 18. What was the common cultural trait of the urbanized trading ports of the east African coast? • Membership in the Soninke tribe • The artistic style of the Nok culture • Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language • A single ruling family from the Malinke tribe • A common descent from refugees from Bagdad

  37. 18. What was the common cultural trait of the urbanized trading ports of the east African coast? • Membership in the Soninke tribe • The artistic style of the Nok culture • Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language • A single ruling family from the Malinke tribe • A common descent from refugees from Bagdad

  38. 19. The significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following EXCEPT • the empire’s ability to survive for almost a thousand years. • the importance of the empire’s capital at Constantinople as a major urban center. • the ability of the empire to spread its cultural and political influence to the Balkans and southern Russia. • the empire’s conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East. • its development of Orthodox Christianity which broke off from Rome in 1054.

  39. 19. The significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following EXCEPT • the empire’s ability to survive for almost a thousand years. • the importance of the empire’s capital at Constantinople as a major urban center. • the ability of the empire to spread its cultural and political influence to the Balkans and southern Russia. • the empire’s conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East. • its development of Orthodox Christianity which broke off from Rome in 1054.

  40. 20. What was the technological innovation that aided the Byzantine Empire in withstanding the Muslim siege of Constantinople in 717? • Cannon • Greek fire • Gunpowder rockets • Catapults • The longbow

  41. 20. What was the technological innovation that aided the Byzantine Empire in withstanding the Muslim siege of Constantinople in 717? • Cannon • Greek fire • Gunpowder rockets • Catapults • The longbow

  42. 21. The religious controversy over the use of religious images in worship that broke out in the 8th century was called • the Trinitarian controversy. • the Christological controversy. • the Filioque controversy. • the Iconoclastic controversy. • the Reformation.

  43. 21. The religious controversy over the use of religious images in worship that broke out in the 8th century was called • the Trinitarian controversy. • the Christological controversy. • the Filioque controversy. • the Iconoclastic controversy. • the Reformation.

  44. 22. What two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for Slavic language? • Basil and John Chrysostom • Cyril and Methodius • Constans and Mnemosyne • John and Matthew • Nicholas and Alexander

  45. 22. What two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for Slavic language? • Basil and John Chrysostom • Cyril and Methodius • Constans and Mnemosyne • John and Matthew • Nicholas and Alexander

  46. 23. Why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism? • He preferred to avoid the pitfalls of the veneration of icons. • He believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state. • He was not familiar with Roman Catholicism, because the Western form of Christianity had not penetrated into eastern Europe. • He did not believe in clerical celibacy which was required of the Roman Catholic priesthood. • He rejected the Roman Catholics’ emphasis on the sacraments and the use of the trinity.

  47. 23. Why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism? • He preferred to avoid the pitfalls of the veneration of icons. • He believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state. • He was not familiar with Roman Catholicism, because the Western form of Christianity had not penetrated into eastern Europe. • He did not believe in clerical celibacy which was required of the Roman Catholic priesthood. • He rejected the Roman Catholics’ emphasis on the sacraments and the use of the trinity.

  48. 24. In what year did the Ottoman Turks successfully capture Constantinople and bring the Byzantine Empire to a close? • 1071 • 1326 • 1453 • 1501 • 1492

  49. 24. In what year did the Ottoman Turks successfully capture Constantinople and bring the Byzantine Empire to a close? • 1071 • 1326 • 1453 • 1501 • 1492