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MINE AWARENESS. INSTRUCTOR. PURPOSE.

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mine awareness

MINE AWARENESS

INSTRUCTOR

purpose
PURPOSE

To increase individual soldier understanding of the mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) threat in the former Republic of Yugoslavia and develop countermine skills in order to protect the force while conducting all operations during operation Joint Endeavor.

training objectives what you want to walk away with
TRAINING OBJECTIVES“WHAT YOU WANT TO WALK AWAY WITH”
  • STEPS TO TAKE WHEN YOU ENCOUNTER A MINE OR UXO
  • KNOW THE INDICATORS OF MINES AND BOOBYTRAPS
  • KNOW THE V CORPS CONVOY MINE STRIKE DRILL
slide4

CONTROLS

HAZARD

RISK MANAGEMENT & REDUCTION

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION:

-1 MILLION MINES

RISK MANAGEMENT & REDUCTION:

EXTREMELY HIGH

  • STAY ON APPROVED ROUTES
  • STOP, AVOID, REPORT, MARK
  • SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
  • LAND NAVIGATION
  • DEVELOP MINE SENSE

ONE MILLION

UNCLEARED

MINES

mine awareness5
MINE AWARENESS

“A SOLDIER WHO IS NOT ENGAGED WITH DIRECT OR INDIRECT FIRE SHOULD NEVER BECOME A CASUALTY”

“MINE WARFARE DURING PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS”, DISPATCHES, LFC HQ (CDN)

actions upon detection
ACTIONS UPON DETECTION
  • STOP
  • AVOID
  • REPORT
  • MARK
  • CONTINUE MISSION?
example reporting format green 1

EXAMPLE REPORTING FORMAT GREEN 1

1. DTG OBSTACLE LOCATED

2. UNIT LOCATING OBSTACLE

3. OBSTACLE TYPE

4. GRID LOCATION

5. TRIP WIRES (YES OR NO)

6. ANTI-HANDING DEVICES (YES OR NO)

7. LOCATION OF BYPASS/BREACH

8. MINEFIELD MARKED (YES OR NO)

9. REMARKS

estimated number of uncleared mines in theatres
ESTIMATED NUMBER OFUNCLEARED MINES IN THEATRES

LOCATIONLANDMINES (MILLIONS)

AFGHANISTAN 9 -10

KUWAIT - IRAQ 5 - 7 + 5 -10

ANGOLA 9

SOMALIA 1 - 1.5

RWANDA UNK - EST THOUSANDS

MOZAMBIQUE 2

BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA 1

CROATIA 1

CAMBODIA 4-7

STATISTICS FROM US DEPT OF STATE POLITICAL - MILITARY AFFAIRS REPORT (1993)

“MINE WARFARE DURING PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS”, DISPATCHES, LFC HQ (CDN)

war related casualties in ifor dec 1995

CAUSE

MINES & UXO

INDIRECT FIRE

DIRECT FIRE

WOUNDED

131

162

111

KILLED

12

8

18

WAR RELATED CASUALTIESIN IFOR (DEC 1995)

“MINE WARFARE DURING PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS”, DISPATCHES, LFC HQ (CDN)

mine types
MINE TYPES
  • ANTI-PERSONNEL-DESIGNED TO KILL OR MAIM DISMOUNTED TROOPS
  • ANTI-TANK- DESIGNED TO DESTROY OR DISABLE TRACK OR WHEELED VEHICLES
  • CHEMICAL- DESIGNED TO DISPENSE SMOKE, CS OR MORE DANGEROUS BIOLOGICAL OR CHEMICAL AGENTS
fuze types
FUZE TYPES
  • PRESSURE
  • OVER PRESSURE/DELAY
  • SEISMIC
  • MAGNETIC
  • CHEMICAL
  • TRIP WIRE (PUSH/PULL)
  • COMMAND DETONATED
mine removal
MINE REMOVAL

US ARMY DOCTRINE ON HANDLING MINES AND UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE:

US FORCES SHOULD NOT ATTEMPT TO DISARM OR PHYSICALLY MOVE ENEMY OR UNOBSERVED US MINES. OUR GOAL IS TO DESTROY MINES IN PLACE.

visual detection
VISUAL DETECTION
  • SURFACE LAID MINES ARE USUALLY VISIBLE
  • SIGNS OF ROAD REPAIR (NEW FILL, PAVING, ROAD PATCHES, DITCHING OR CULVERT WORK)
  • WIRES LEADING AWAY FROM THE ROAD
  • ODD FEATURES OR PATTERNS
  • PIECES OR WOOD OR DEBRIS ON ROAD.
  • SIGNS TREES, POSTS OR STAKES.
  • DAMAGED VEHICLES OR DEAD ANIMALS.
likely locations for mines and boobytraps
LIKELY LOCATIONS FORMINES AND BOOBYTRAPS
  • MOUNTAIN PASSES AND NARROW ROADS WITH NO SHOULDERS OR BYPASSES
  • OLD CHECK POINTS AND BATTLEFIELDS
  • ALONG OBSTACLE BYPASSES
  • OBVIOUS REST AREAS/CLEARINGS ALONG ROADS
  • ABANDONED BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES
  • ABANDONED WEAPONS AND TRINKETS ATTRACTIVE TO SOUVENIR HUNTERS
other detection methods
OTHER DETECTION METHODS
  • LOCAL CIVILIANS MAY KNOW WHERE MINES AND BOOBYTRAPS ARE LOCATED IN THE AO.
  • LOCAL MILITIA FORCES MAY BE ABLE TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE IN LOCATING TACTICAL MINEFIELDS.
  • LOCALLY KNOWN MARKING SYSTEMS (ROCK PILES, BROKEN BRANCHES ON TREES, CROSSED STICKS ON ROADS)
minefield marking in the former yugoslavia
MINEFIELD MARKING IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

MINIRANO

MNHE

MINE

MINEFIELD WARNING SIGNS

expedient marking in the former yugoslavia
EXPEDIENT MARKING IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

Three hash

marks.

This symbol can be

painted on, with or

without the triangle.

former yugoslavian mine employment
FORMER YUGOSLAVIANMINE EMPLOYMENT

MINEFIELD PROTECTING A MUNITIONS DUMP

PMR 2

MRUDs

50 cm

PMA 2s

1 M

MRUD Command

Firing Position

slide19

Berm Cross Section

TMA3

1.5 M

2 M

FORMER YUGOSLAVIAN

MINE EMPLOYMENT

ROAD OBSTACLES

Buried TMA3s

Blocking Bypass

Small

Road

Berm Across

Road with

4 TMA3s.

Roadway

slide20

FORMER YUGOSLAVIAN

MINE EMPLOYMENT

RURAL ROADBLOCK

BURIED

TMA 3s

PMR 2s

IN SERIES

X

X

X

X

X

X

SURFACE

LAID TMA 3s

FABRICATED

DRAGONS TEETH

cmtc lessons learned
CMTC LESSONS LEARNED
  • ATTACH TOW CABLE TO THE BACK OF VEHICLES TO EASE EXTRACTION OF CASUALTIES AND DISABLED VEHICLES
  • EVERY VEHICLE CARRIES A MINE/UXO MARKING KIT
  • LEAD CONVOYS WITH A HARDENED OR MINE RESISTANT VEHICLE
  • TIE DOWN EQUIPMENT IN THE VEHICLE
slide22

SMALL UNIT METHODS TO

DECREASE VULNERABILITY

  • CHECK WITH HIGHER TO CONFIRM ROUTE IS CLEARED BEFORE MOVING
  • AVOID PREDICTABILITY
  • SAND BAG AND HARDEN SOFT SKIN VEHICLES
  • KNOW UNIT SOP FOR MINE RECON
  • MARK AND REPORT!!!
expedient marking

MARKING RULES

  • CLEARLY VISIBLE FROM ALL DIRECTIONS OF TRAVEL
  • SEMI-PERMANENT
  • MARKING TECHNIQUE DOES NOT JEOPARDIZE MARKING CREW
  • REPORT MARKING TO HIGHER
EXPEDIENT MARKING

MINES

slide24

MINE STRIKE

  • IF A VEHICLE IN A CONVOY ON A PREVIOUSLY CLEARED ROUTE STRIKES A MINE, ALL OTHER VEHICLES IN THE CONVOY IMMEDIATELY STOP.
  • MOVING OFF THE ROAD OR TOWARDS THE SHOULDERS (HERRING BONE) COULD EXPOSE MORE VEHICLES TO MINES.
  • SECURITY IS PROVIDED BY MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPACING AND ALTERNATING VEHICLE MOUNTED WEAPONS.
  • DISMOUNTED MOVEMENT SHOULD BE RESTRICTED UNTIL A PATH TO THE DISABLED VEHICLE IS CLEARED AND MARKED.
  • METT-T WILL DICTATE WHEN THE CONVOY CAN CONTINUE MOVEMENT.
v corps mine strike procedures with engineers in the convoy
V CORPS MINE STRIKE PROCEDURESWITH ENGINEERS IN THE CONVOY
  • CONVOY CDR HALTS CONVOY AND REPORTS TO HIGHER
  • NO VEHICLE MOVEMENT OR DISMOUNTING SOLDIERS
  • 360 DEGREE SECURITY PROVIDED FROM VEHICLES
  • SENIOR ENGINEER DIRECTS CLEARANCE OPERATIONS THROUGH CONVOY COMMANDER
  • SWEEP TEAM CLEARS FOOTPATH TO INJURED PERSONNEL; BEGIN FIRST AID
  • SWEEP TEAM CLEARS AN LZ
  • LOCATED MINES CLEARLY MARKED
  • UNIT CLEARS WRECKAGE AND FILLS MINE CRATER
  • ROAD GUARDS GUIDE VEHICLES AROUND MINES
  • MINES CLEARED AFTER CONVOY MOVES OUT OF AREA
  • UNIT CONTINUES MISSION
self unit extraction
SELF/UNIT EXTRACTION
  • FREEZE (STOP ALL MOVEMENT IN AREA)
  • LEADER REPORTS TO HIGHER AND DESIGNATES PATH TO CLEAR THROUGH MINEFIELD
  • EXTRACTION ELEMENT PROBES AND MARKS A CLEARED PATH; CHECKS FOR TRIP WIRES AND BURIED MINES; MARKS PATH AND MINES
  • OTHER ELEMENTS PROBE TO CLEARED PATH
  • EVACUATE CASUALTIES BY PROBING; DRAG TO PATH AND EVACUATE AS REQUIRED.
slide27

MINE AWARENESSTACTICAL HINT

REGARDLESS OF THE ARMORED VEHICLE, WHEN THE MINE THREAT IS HIGHER THAN THE DIRECT FIRE THREAT, KEEP YOUR HATCHES “CRACKED” OPEN AN INCH OR TWO. THAT WAY, IF YOU DRIVE OVER A MINE, THE OVERPRESSURE FROM THE EXPLOSION WILL HAVE AN ESCAPE IF THE HULL IS PENETRATED.

“MINE WARFARE DURING PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS”, DISPATCHES, LFC HQ (CDN)

former yugoslavian mine employment29

20- 40 M

Former YugoslavianMine Employment

AT (Full Width) Minefields

9-12 M

former yugoslavian mine employment30

20- 40 M

4-5.5 M

Former YugoslavianMine Employment

AT (Pressure) Minefields

slide31

FORMER YUGOSLAVIAN

MINE EMPLOYMENT

URBAN ROADBLOCK

PMR-2s

TRIP WIRE CONNECTING

MINES TOGETHER

FABRICATED

DRAGONS TEETH

X

X

X

SURFACE LAID

TMA 3s

review

REVIEW

Understand the mine threat risk reduction measures.

Know the indicators of mines and booby traps.

Steps to take when you encounter mines, UXO, or booby traps.

Understand expedient marking systems.

Be familiar with the V Corps convoy mine strike drill.