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Game Design ( 4190.420 Computer Game ) Jehee Lee Seoul National University Taxonomy of Creative Expressions beauty Art Creative Expression Movies, Books, etc. Entertainment Toys Playthings Puzzles Challenges Competitions Conflicts Games

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game design 4190 420 computer game

Game Design(4190.420Computer Game)

Jehee Lee

Seoul National University

taxonomy of creative expressions
Taxonomy of Creative Expressions

beauty

Art Creative Expression

Movies, Books, etc. Entertainment

Toys Playthings

Puzzles Challenges

Competitions Conflicts

Games

money

non-interactive

interactive

no goals

goals

No competitor

competitor

no attacks

Attacks allowed

definitions
Definitions
  • A form of play with goals and structure (Kevin Maroney)
  • A form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal (Greg Costikyan)
  • An activity with some rules engaged in for an outcome (Eric Zimmerman)
milestone games old styles
Milestone Games: Old-Styles
  • Monopoly
    • The most successful board game
    • Designed in 1930s
    • It concerns real estate transactions
milestone games old styles5
Milestone Games: Old-Styles
  • Traditional card games
  • Board wargames
    • Flourished in the 1960s and 1970s
milestone games
Milestone Games
  • Space Invaders
    • designed and programmed by Toshihiro Nishikado in 1978
milestone games7
Milestone Games
  • Pac-Man
    • Midway, 1980
    • A yellow, pie-shaped character named Pac-Man runs along inside a maze, eating dots as it avoids four ghosts.
milestone games8
Milestone Games
  • Platform games
    • Space panic, 1982
    • Donkey Kong, 1981
      • Tilted floors
      • Jumping over barrels
milestone games9
Milestone Games
  • Moria, Wizardry, 1990s
    • Implementation of Dungeons & Dragons
    • Map explorations
    • Designed for the Plato networked computer system
milestone games10
Milestone Games
  • M.U.L.E.
    • Electronic Arts, 1983
    • the first multiplayer resource-based strategy game
    • Players must manage several resources: food, energy, smithore and crystite.
milestone games11
Milestone Games
  • The 7th Guest
    • Puzzle-solving adventure
    • Playing video from the CD nonlinearly
some milestone games
Some Milestone Games
  • Doom
  • Civilization
  • SimCity
  • Starcraft
  • Populous
  • 리니지
slide13
Play

“ A voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules freely accepted but absolutely binding, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy, and the consciousness that it is ‘different’ from ‘ordinary life.’ ”

slide14
Play

“ A voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules freely accepted but absolutely binding, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy, and the consciousness that it is ‘different’ from ‘ordinary life.’ ”

slide15
Play

“ A voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules freely accepted but absolutely binding, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy, and the consciousness that it is ‘different’ from ‘ordinary life.’ ”

slide16
Play

“ A voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules freely accepted but absolutely binding, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy, and the consciousness that it is ‘different’ from ‘ordinary life.’ ”

slide17
Play

“ A voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules freely accepted but absolutely binding, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy, and the consciousness that it is ‘different’ from ‘ordinary life.’ ”

slide18
Play
  • Early mammals learned to play as a way of polishing the complex neural circuitry that they were born with
  • Play’s role in our childhood is dominating
play is metaphorical
Play is Metaphorical
  • All play represents something from the non-play universe
  • But, play is not necessarily a simulation of anything in the real world
play must be safe
Play must be Safe
  • The whole idea of play is to give the player an experience without the danger that might normally accompany that experience
  • Frequent game saving in role-playing games
    • Players want to feel that their investment is safe
  • The paradox of play is that it provides the player with dangerous experiences that are absolutely safe
    • Eg) Roller coasters
    • Eg) Intro of “Raiders of the Lost Ark” by Spielberg
play need not be exotic
Play Need Not Be Exotic
  • Players want to face and overcome interesting challenges, but not necessarily be spirited away to an exotic world
    • Eg) skateboarding in environments forbidden to real skateboarders
    • Eg) The Sims
challenge necessitates rules
Challenge Necessitates Rules
  • All challenges take place in some sort of defined context, setting the conditions (rules) under which the challenge is presented
  • Most challenges are voluntary
goal vs challenge
Goal vs. Challenge
  • The goal of mountain climbing is to get to the top of the mountain
  • Mountain climbing would be so much easier with a helicopter, but that would remove all the challenge
  • Most climbers have a set of self-imposed rules that limit their utilization of such aides
  • The point is the challenge, not the goal
rules and challenges
Rules and Challenges
  • The primary purpose of rules is to prevent strategies that subvert the challenge
    • In most sports games, there is some sort of boundary and any play that goes “out of bounds” is forbidden by the rules
  • It is possible to ruin a good challenge by exploiting loopholes in the rules
  • “Lock on victory”: A strategy or technique that guarantees success
    • Eg) MazeWar (one of the earliest multiplayer games)
rules and challenges25
Rules and Challenges
  • A good game design ensures that only the challenging ways are possible
  • What constitutes a challenging strategy?
dimensions of challenge
Dimensions of Challenge
  • Cerebellar challenges
  • Sensorimotor challenges
  • Spatial reasoning
  • Pattern recognition
  • Sequential reasoning
  • Numerical reasoning
  • Resource management
  • Social reasoning
cerebellar challenges
Cerebellar Challenges
  • The cerebellum is the control module for motor functions
  • Motor control procedure
    • High-level brain decisions are passed to the cerebellum
    • Breaks each command down into smaller, precisely timed commands to trigger particular muscle bundles
    • These commands go down the brain stem to the spinal cord and thence to the muscles
cerebellar challenges28
Cerebellar Challenges
  • There are only a few sports that are exclusively cerebellar in nature
    • Eg) Discus, shot-put and javelin
    • Do not involve much sensory input
    • Do not require accuracy of aim
sensorimotor challenges
Sensorimotor Challenges
  • Most cerebellar challenges include a sensory element
    • You don’t just trigger muscles in some predetermined sequence
    • You must use your senses (most often vison) to direct and control the muscular activity
  • Even a simple human behavior require very accurate sensory-motor coordination
    • A single neuron takes a few milliseconds to fire
    • How do we attain the accuracy?
sensorimotor challenges30
Sensorimotor Challenges
  • Most sensorimotor challenges require the integration of visual information with motor response
    • Eg) Hand-eye coordination
  • Sport vs videogames
    • Full-body exercise vs. swift thumbs
pushing the pathways down
Pushing the Pathways Down
  • The neural pathways utilized in sensorimotor challenges are complex
    • Visual data passes from the retina to the visual cortex
    • Processed into visually meaningful components
    • Travels to the cerebral cortex
    • Decide what to do (high-level processing)
    • Decisions are passed down to cerebellum
    • Muscle action
pushing the pathways down32
Pushing the Pathways Down
  • Any process that we concentrate on repetitively can develop its own custom neural pathways that render its opertaion faster and smoother
  • By moving the pathways lower into the brain, the player reduces the amount of processing required to react to events in the game or sports
    • Decision making is no longer conscious or deliberate
    • Often described as “instinctive”
  • The brain can learn different tasks with different degrees of facility
altered states of consciousness
Altered States of Consciousness
  • Human are programmed to learn, and successful learning is intrinsically pleasurable
  • Some players devote the entire mental resource to the learning process and shut conscious processing down
    • Similar to altered states of consciousness induced by drug
analogy between videogame and drug
Analogy between Videogame and Drug
  • Pleasure
    • “videogamer’s high” attained at a certain level of proficiency
  • The sense of power and invulnerability
    • Drug users report the feeling that they are smarter, more creative, and able to see more deeply into their souls
    • Some videogamers report similar experience
  • The loss of awareness of the real world
  • Addiction
higher level reasoning
Higher-level Reasoning
  • Spatial reasoning
    • Eg) Identifying a bad guy popping up
  • Pattern recognition
    • Eg) a puzzle game in which the player was presented with a random pattern of colored dots that slowly dissolved into a recognizable image
    • Eg) Boardgames
  • Sequential reasoning
    • Eg) Baduk, Chess
    • Programmers tend to overemphasize sequential reasoning because it comes so easily to them
higher level reasoning36
Higher-level Reasoning
  • Numerical reasoning
    • Usually a tedious challenge
  • Resource management
    • Eg) In strategy games, the player must carefully marshal a limited supply of scarce resources
    • Eg) ammunition and health in shooters
    • Some of the best game designers argue that resource management is central to game design
higher level reasoning37
Higher-level Reasoning
  • Social reasoning
    • Less developed source of challenge
    • Eg) The sims
    • Eg) Ms. Pac-Man