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FRATRICIDE. Fratricide. FRATRICIDE: ISSUES. QUESTIONS: WHAT ARE THE CAUSES? WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS? WHAT CONTROL MEASURES CAN REDUCE FRATRICIDE? PRACTICAL EXERCISE. Casual Factors Per TC 1-210 Poor Land navigation Loss of communications Position Reporting errors

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slide2

FRATRICIDE: ISSUES

  • QUESTIONS:
    • WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?
    • WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS?
    • WHAT CONTROL MEASURES CAN REDUCE FRATRICIDE?
  • PRACTICAL EXERCISE
slide3

Casual Factors Per TC 1-210

Poor Land navigation

Loss of communications

Position Reporting errors

Incorrect target identification

Incomplete planning and coordination

Equipment failure or improper procedures

slide4

FRATRICIDE: DEFINED

  • DEFINITIONS:
    • DICTIONARY
    • TRADOC
slide5

FRATRICIDE: DEFINED

  • TRADOC DEFINITION
    • The employment of friendly weapons and munitions with the intent to kill the enemy or destroy his equipment or facilities; which results in unforeseen and unintentional death or injury to friendly personnel.
slide6

FRATRICIDE: HISTORY

  • HISTORY OF FRATRICIDE:
    • WORLD WAR I & WORLD WAR II
    • THE KOREAN WAR
    • THE VIETNAM WAR
    • OPERATION JUST CAUSE
    • OPERATION DESERT STORM
slide7

FRATRICIDE: HISTORY

  • WORLD WAR I:
    • Battle of Verdun - 351st French Infantry was annihilated by friendly 155mm artillery
    • Battle of Rossignol forest - 1st French Colonial Infantry was fired on by friendly artillery
slide8

FRATRICIDE: HISTORY

  • WORLD WAR II:
    • North Africa Campaign 1942 - 701st U.S. Tank Destroyer Battalion repeatedly attacked by friendly air strikes
    • Operation Cobra 1944 - U.S. 30th Infantry Division attacked by friendly CAS
slide9

FRATRICIDE: HISTORY

  • VIETNAM:
    • Two U.S. Infantry Companies were strafed and bombed by two U.S. Air Force F-100s
    • Pleiku 1969 - U.S. soldiers were fired on by a UH-1 helicopter
slide10

FRATRICIDE: HISTORY

  • OPERATION JUST CAUSE:
    • Mechanized Infantry unit came under fire from an Air Force AC-130 gunship
slide11

FRATRICIDE: HISTORY

  • DESERT STORM:
    • Two U.S. 1st Infantry Division vehicles came under attack by an AH-64
    • A-10 strafed allied vehicle
slide12

FRATRICIDE: HISTORY

  • OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT:
    • Two F-15s shot down two UH-60s over Northern Iraq
slide13

FRATRICIDE: REPORTS

  • RELUCTANCE TO REPORT
slide14

FRATRICIDE: REPORTS

  • RELUCTANCE TO REPORT
    • Morale
    • Creates mistrust with adjoining units
    • Careers
    • In the best interest of all
slide15

FRATRICIDE: REPORTS

  • REASONS TO REPORT:
slide16

FRATRICIDE: REPORTS

  • REASONS TO REPORT:
    • Prevention
    • Media will eventually find out
    • No perception of cover up
    • Makes Commander accountable
slide17

FRATRICIDE: FACTORS

  • CAUSES OF FRATRICIDE
slide18

FRATRICIDE: FACTORS

  • CAUSES OF FRATRICIDE
    • LACK OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
    • NO POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION
slide19

FRATRICIDE: FACTORS

  • CAUSES OF FRATRICIDE
    • POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION
    • ABSOLUTE I.D. OF FRIEND OR FOE

NOTE: ABSOLUTE I.D. IS IMPOSSIBLE AT MAXIMUM RANGES WITH SOME WEAPON SYSTEMS.

slide20

FRATRICIDE: CAUSES

  • MOST COMMON ERRORS:
    • LAND NAVIGATION FAILURES
    • REPORTING, BATTLE TRACKING FAILURES
    • DIRECT FIRE CONTROL FAILURES
    • BATTLEFIELD HAZARDS
    • FRIENDLY MINE FIELDS
slide21

FRATRICIDE: CAUSES

  • MOST COMMON ERRORS:
    • ID ERROR
    • NAVIGATION
    • LOSS OF FIRE CONTROL
    • INEFFECTIVE MANEUVER CONTROL
    • WEAPONS ERRORS
    • OTHER
slide22

FRATRICIDE: EFFECTS

  • EFFECTS OF FRATRICIDE
slide23

FRATRICIDE: EFFECTS

  • EFFECTS OF FRATRICIDE
    • HESITATION TO CONDUCT LIMITED VISIBILITY OPERATIONS
    • LOSS OF CONFIDENCE
      • LEADERS
      • SOLDIERS
slide24

FRATRICIDE: EFFECTS

  • EFFECTS OF FRATRICIDE
    • LOSS OF INITIATIVE AND AGGRESSIVENESS
    • COHESION AND MORALE DEGRADED
    • OVERSUPERVISION
    • LOSS OF COMBAT POWER
slide25

FRATRICIDE: PREVENTION

  • COUNTER MEASURES
    • TACTICAL PLAN
    • TECHNIQUES
    • PROCEDURES
    • EQUIPMENT SOLUTIONS
slide26

FRATRICIDE: PREVENTION

  • TACTICS
    • TACTICAL PLAN
    • JOINT OPERATIONS TNG
    • UNIT TRAINING
slide27

FRATRICIDE: PREVENTION

  • TECHNIQUES
    • PROPER IDENTIFICATION
    • ASCIET
slide28

FRATRICIDE: PREVENTION

  • PROCEDURES:
    • FIRE CONTROL PLAN
    • INFORMED SOLDIERS
    • REHEARSALS
    • ACCURATELY TRACK THE BATTLE
    • ADJACENT UNIT COORDINATION
slide29

FRATRICIDE: PREVENTION

  • PROCEDURES
    • RECONNAISSANCE
    • COORDINATE ALL FIRE SUPPORT ASSETS
    • ESTABLISH LIAISON TEAMS
    • TRAINING LITERATURE & DEVICES
slide30

FRATRICIDE: PREVENTION

  • EQUIPMENT CONTROL MEASURES:
    • LOW TECH
    • HIGH TECH
slide32

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • GROUP ACTIVITY
    • IDENTIFY THE HAZARDS IN THIS SCENARIO
    • DEVELOP COUNTERMEASURES TO MITIGATE THESE HAZARDS
    • REPORT ON YOUR RESULTS
    • NOTE: Use METT-T as the outline for ID of Hazards and list of Countermeasures
slide33

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

GENERAL SITUATION

  • MISSION - Probe enemy positions for location & strength
  • ENEMY - Mech Inf with Russian (Soviet) style weaponry
  • TERRAIN
    • Desert with moderate dunes
    • Wind 090/25k, no moon, clear, 2350 hrs
  • TROOPS & EQUIPMENT
    • Mech Inf, well-trained, rested troops
    • AH-64 team
    • Fully functional equipment
  • TIME - Adequate tactical planning time available
slide34

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

TASK FORCE IRON: a case study in fratricide

slide35

TASK FORCE IRON

NORTH

SCREEN LINE

MECH INF TASK FORCE

3

MILES

AH-64

APACHE

WINDS

IRAQ

KUWAIT

slide36

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • MISSION HAZARDS
    • Commander’s intent unclear or complex; vehicles stationed with random spacing and orientation
    • Poor flank coordination; right flank coordinates not known by Commander
    • Poor communication procedures; initial AH-64 salvo did not prompt cease fire request from vehicles
slide37

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • ENEMY HAZARDS
    • Weak reconnaissance of enemy positions and composition
    • Weak intelligence; friendly scouts provided incorrect coordinates to Commander
slide38

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • TERRAIN HAZARDS
    • Navigation difficult; lack of uniquely identifying terrain features
    • Night; although not inherently a hazard, justifies further caution and target verification
slide39

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • TROOPS & EQUIPMENT HAZARDS
    • Anxiety and confusion over vague mission parameters
    • Lack of trust/confidence in on-board instruments (AH-64)
slide40

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • TIME HAZARDS
    • “Gunfighter 6” backseat pilot urging quick shoot ...”Let’s get it over with and go home”
    • Task Force Cdr also urged quick shoot ...”Can you engage targets? Then, take ‘em out”
slide41

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • Countermeasures
    • Tactical Plan
      • Simplify Tactical Plan
      • Maintain Situational Awareness
    • Procedures
      • Verify target coordinates
      • Inform Soldiers
slide42

FRATRICIDE: EXERCISE

  • Countermeasures
    • Equipment Solutions
      • Global Positioning System
      • Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) Transponders
      • Unique Vehicular Markings
slide43

FRATRICIDE: SUMMARY

  • SUMMARY
    • DEFINITION
    • HISTORY
    • CAUSES
    • EFFECTS
    • REDUCTION MEASURES