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Emotion. Chapter 11. Emotion. Defining Emotion Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture Putting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender. Emotion.

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Emotion

Chapter 11


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Emotion

  • Defining Emotion

  • Elements of Emotion 1: The Body

  • Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind

  • Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture

  • Putting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender


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Emotion

  • A state of arousal involving facial and body changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules.


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Elements of Emotion 1: The Body

  • Primary and secondary emotions

  • The face of emotion

  • The brain and emotion

  • Hormones and emotion

  • Detecting emotions: Does the body lie?


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Elements of Emotion 1: The Body

  • Primary emotions

    • Emotions considered to be universal and biologically based. They generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt.

  • Secondary emotion

    • Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures.

  • Three biological areas of emotion are

    • facial expressions,

    • brain regions and circuits, and

    • autonomic nervous system.


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Universal Expressions of Emotion

  • Facial expressions for primary emotions are universal.

  • Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them.

  • Facial feedback

    • Process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.

  • Infants are able to read parental expressions.

  • Facial expression can generate same expressions in others, creating mood contagion.


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The Face of Anger

  • Anger is universally recognized by geometric patterns on the face.

  • In each pair, the left form seems angrier than the right form.


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Facial Expressions in Social Context

  • Across and within cultures, agreement often varies on which emotion a particular facial expression is revealing.

  • People don’t usually express their emotion in facial expressions unless others are around.

  • Facial expressions convey different meanings depending on their circumstances.

  • People often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them.


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The Brain and Emotion

  • The amygdala

    • Responsible for assessing threat.

    • Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear.

  • Left prefrontal cortex

    • Involved in motivation to approach others.

    • Damage to this area results in loss of joy.

  • Right prefrontal cortex

    • Involved in withdrawal and escape.

    • Damage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria.


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Hormones and Emotion

  • When experiencing an intense emotion, 2 hormones are released.

    • Epinephrine

    • Norepinephrine

  • Results in increased alertness and arousal.

  • At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally.



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Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?

  • Polygraph testing relies on autonomic nervous system arousal.

  • Typical measures:

    • Galvanic Skin Response

    • Pulse, blood pressure

    • Breathing

    • Fidgeting


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Polygraph Tests

  • Empirical support is weak and conflicting.

  • Test is inadmissible in most courts.

  • It is illegal to use for most job screening.

  • Many government agencies continue to use for screening.


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Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind

  • How thoughts create emotions

    • The two factor theory of emotion.

    • Attributions and emotions.

  • Cognitions and emotional complexity


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Two-factor Theory of Emotion

  • Physiological arousal

    • Sweaty palms

    • Increased heart rate

    • rapid breathing

  • Cognitive Label

    • Attribute source of arousal to a cause

  • To have an emotion, both factors are required


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Attributions and Emotions

  • Perceptions and attributions are involved in emotions.

  • How one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains it.

    • For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal.

  • Philosophy of life is also influential.


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Cognitions and Emotional Complexity

  • Cognitions, and therefore, emotions, become more complex as a child’s cerebral cortex matures.

    • Self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, do not occur until after infancy, due to the emergence of a sense of self and others.

  • People can learn how their thinking affects their emotions and can change their thinking accordingly.


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Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture

  • Culture and emotional variation

  • The rules of emotional regulation

    • Display rules

    • Body language

    • Emotion work


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Culture and Emotional Variation

  • Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about.

  • Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures.

    • Ex. Schadenfreude

  • Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to others.

    • Tahitian and sadness

  • Differences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages.


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The Rules of Emotional Regulation

  • Display Rules

    • When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched.

  • Body Language

    • The nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly express.

  • Emotion Work

    • Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion.


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Putting it all together: Emotion and Gender

  • Physiology and intensity

  • Sensitivity to other people’s emotions

  • Cognitions

  • Expressiveness

    • Factors which affect expressiveness

  • Emotion work


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Putting the Elements Together: Emotion and Gender

  • Physiology and intensity

    • Women recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men.

    • Men experience emotional events more intensely than do women.

    • Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women.


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Possible reasons for differences in physiology and intensity.

  • Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than females.

  • Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains anger.

  • Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression.


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Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions intensity.

  • Factors which influence one’s ability to “read” emotional signals:

    • The sex of the sender and receiver.

    • How well the sender and receiver know each other.

    • How expressive the sender is.

    • Who has the power.

    • Stereotypes and expectations.


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Cognitions intensity.

  • Men and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that provoke their anger.

  • Women become angry over issues related to their partners disregard.

  • Men become angry over damage to property or problems with strangers.


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Expressiveness intensity.

  • In North America women:

    • Smile more than men.

    • Gaze at listeners more.

    • Have more emotionally expressive faces.

    • Use more expressive body movements.

    • Touch others more.

    • Acknowledge weakness and emotions more.

  • Compared to women, men only express anger to strangers more.


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Factors Influencing Emotional Expressiveness intensity.

  • Gender roles

  • Cultural norms

  • The specific situation


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Emotion Work and Gender intensity.

  • Women work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy.

  • Men work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional.

  • Why?

    • Gender roles and status.