Controlled Substances. What is a controlled substance?. Drugs. “Controlled substance” is a legal term referring specifically to substances controlled by federal or state laws. Possession of a controlled substance for personal use is at least a misdemeanor on the first offense.
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“Controlled substance” is a legal term referring specifically to substances controlled by federal or state laws.
Possession of a controlled substance for personal use is at least a misdemeanor on the first offense.
Used interchangeably with “drug of abuse” but some drugs of abuse are not illegal, e.g., caffeine.
Established legal definitions for drugs
Set up five schedules for classification of drugs and penalties for each.
Naturally Occurring: Marijuana, Cocaine, Morphine, Codeine, Psilocybin/Psilocin
Synthetic: Phencyclidine (PCP), Amphetamines, Barbiturates
Semisynthetic: (prepared chemically from a natural substance) Heroin, LSD
Occurrence: Orient origin; now grows worldwide
Active Ingredients: cannabinoids, primarily THC (tetrahydrocannibinol)
Legal/Scientific Issues: definition of hashish; >1 species of Cannabis
“Coca leaves and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof…”
Occurrence: coca plant grows at high elevations (Andes mountains of Bolivia Columbia), rarely found in pure form in U.S.
Legal/Scientific Issues: numerous isomers, classified as narcotic, high income for abusers (better legal defense)
Occurrence: most are hot, dry Middle Eastern Countries
Legal/Scientific Issues: Usually none, quantity for scientific analysis sometimes an issue
Two of its precursors are also controlled because synthesis of PCP from these precursors is a trivial matter
PCP is Schedule II, but some of its analogs are Schedule I
Occurrence: once used as an animal tranquilizer; called “angel dust”; may appear as an adulterant
Legal/Scientific Issues: Must know chemistry, preparation, precursors, and analogs; Must show that PCP was made or goal was to make PCP for clandestine labs
LSD (lysergic acid diethlyamide)
LSD (lysergic acid diethlyamide)
Occurrence: derived from lysergic acid found in the ergot fungus (grows on certain rye plants); found on blotter paper, gel caps, sugar cubes, etc.
Legal/Scientific Issues: small amount = difficult to analyze; presence of interfering substances (purification necessary)
Occurrence: many different forms, legal (prescription or OTC) and illegal
Legal/Scientific Issues: large number of isomers and derivatives, clandestine labs
Occurrence: Normally found in tablets or capsules, legally and illegally
Legal/Scientific Issues: Identification of exact derivative
Psilocybin and Psilocin
Psilocubin and Psilocin
Occurrence: found in a number of mushrooms, usually not extracted from the mushrooms before being sold
Legal/Scientific Issues: Identification and extraction from mushroom
Occurrence: Found on street as peyote buttons which are eaten, occasionally extracted as powder
Legal/Scientific Issues: Identification and extraction