UNIT 2: Approaches to Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology • According to McMillan • Cognitive Psychology is the scientific study of human thoughts and the mental process that underlie behavior which includes memory, problem solving, perception and language. • i.e. Cognitive Psychology focuses on internal psychological processes that involves in understanding human thoughts and mental processes that defines human behavior.
Cognitive Psychology • Cognitive Psychology …. • Help us to understand our environment more, & • What internal process that are involved in making appropriate decision in life. • These internal processes includes: • Attention • Perception • Learning • Memory • Language • Problem solving, • Reasoning • Thinking
Approaches…. • Cognitive scientist have difficulties in studying cognitive process in human being because… mental process cannot be seen, unlike overt behavior. • Scientists need a general framework to guide them, a set of assumptions that tells them where to start, what to look for, what to be aware of. • Thus, various approaches to study human cognitive process were developed: • Experimental cognitive psychology • Cognitive science • Cognitive neuropsychology • Cognitive neuroscience
Experimental cognitive psychology • Experimental cognitive psychology – foundation for all the approaches in cognitive psychology • Involves: • Conducting experiments on normal individuals under laboratory studies. • Scientific method – system of established principles and processes of scientific inquiry • Identifying a problem • Formulating hypotheses • Collecting data • Analyzing the data • Disseminating findings
Experimental cognitive psychology • Experimental Cognitive Psychologist would usually…. • Identifying a problem (define a question of study). • Gather information and resources • Formulate hypotheses • Conduct scientific experiment • Collect data • Analyze data • Interpret data • Make conclusion (in order to build a starting point for new hypothesis) • Results (findings) will be disseminate
Experimental cognitive psychology • Sample normal individuals under laboratory conditions • Controlled environment – to understand human cognition/thinking process better
Limitation of Experimental cognitive psychology • People tend to behave differently when they are in the lab situation (when involved in experiment) resulting in inaccurate findings because it does not represent the true process of human cognition. • Normally setting or design of the experiments is carried out in advance according to scientists needs/ requirement little emphasize on respondent’s response. • Measurement on the speed and accuracy of performance provide only indirect evidence about the internal process involved in cognition. • Experimenter have the tendency to ignore the differences in respondents background (IQ, SES etc) could affect the experiment result.
Cognitive science • Cognitive Science… • Focus on the relationship between artificial intelligence and Cognitive Psychology by developing computational models in order to understand human cognitions. • Artificial Intelligence is the study of human intelligence such that it can be replicated artificially. i.e. AI:- • Systems that think like humans (focus on reasoning and human framework) • Systems that think rationally (focus on reasoning and a general concept of intelligence) • Systems that act like humans (focus on behavior and human framework) • Systems that act rationally (focus on behavior and a general concept of intelligence)
…Cognitive science • A good computational model can:- • show us how a given theory can be specified in detail allow us to predict behavior in new situations. • Help to stimulate better specification of cognitive theories and generates new predictions. • 3 main types of computational models:- • Semantic networks • Production system • Connectionist network
…Limitation of Cognitive science • Normally computational models are used for/as prop for a theory, rarely used to make prediction because often they have no real predictive function. • Connectionist models claim to have neuro plausibility, do not really resemble the human brain. • Most computational model has been design to stimulate human performance on single task.
Cognitive Neuropsychology • Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. • Emphasize on study the cognitive effects of brain injury or neurological illness by inferring to models of normal cognitive functioning (in order to understand the normal human cognition). • Evidence is based on case studies of individual brain damaged patients who show deficits in brain areas
…..OTAK • Setiap bahagian otak sangat penting dalam mempengaruhi perkembangan bayi berintegrasi juga dengan integrasi dengan emosi dan tingkahlaku sosial. • Otak Luar: Cortex & neocortex berlipat-lipat, disinilah letaknya ‘intelligence’ (tempat berfikir), kawasan yang mengawal penglihatan, pendengaran, rekacipta, percakapan dan pemikiran. Ia terbahagi kepada bahagian-bahagian (lobes) Otak Tengah: Limbic System mengawal emosi, ingatan, motivasi, t/l agrasif, kawal suhu badan, lapar, aktiviti sistem saraf, rembesan hormon, dan pusat kepuasan Pangkal Otak: Brain stem Kawal proses-proses hidup,spt bernafas, pergerakan jantung, proses ginjal, tidur, arousal, attention & keseimbangan badan (balance/movement), dll.
Cognitive Neuropsychology • Cognitive neuropsychologist assume that cognitive system consists of several modules or cognitive processors within the brain. • i.e. the cognitive processors involved in understanding speech is different from actual talking. • So, some brain damage patients are good at language comprehension but poor at talking (or vice-versa) . • From these studies researchers infer that different areas of the brain are highly specialized.
Cognitive Neuropsychology • Cognitive neuropsychology also uses many of the same techniques and technologies from the wider science of neuropsychology and fields such as cognitive neuroscience (neuroimaging – e.g. PET scan/MRI/CT scan; electrophysiology & neuropsychology test) to measure either brain function or psychological performance
Limitations: Cognitive Neuropsychology • Assume that the cognitive performance of a brain damage patients provide direct evidence of the impact of brain damage (of previously normal cognitive system). • The whole cognitive neuropsychological approach is very complex because every individual are different (in age, size, SES, educational background) , but they have similar kind of brain damage. So???? • The study of brain damage patients can lead to underestimates of brain areas involved in performing any given cognitive functioning
Cognitive Neuroscience • Cognitive neuroscience is an academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological component underlying cognition with specific focus on the neural component of mental processes. • It addresses the questions of how psychological/ cognitive functions are produced by the brain focused on uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes. • Includes studying about perception, attention, motor control, language, learning, memory, spatial and social cognition
Cognitive Neuroscience • Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as biology, physiology, physiological psychology, cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. • Therefore, the Cognitive neuroscientists comes from various backgrounds, such as….. • cognitive neuroscience, neurobiology, Bioengineering, • Psychiatry, neurology, physics, computer science, linguistics, philosophy and mathematics.
Cognitive Neuroscience • Methods employed in cognitive neuroscience include experimental paradigms from psychophysics and cognitive psychology, functional neuro imaging, electrophysiology, cognitive genomics and behavioral genetics. • Scientist tried to understand the relationship between the brain and mind from various aspects. • Studies of the human brain are done scientifically in controlled environment (lab) • Studies of patients with cognitive deficits due to brain lesions constitute an important aspect of cognitive neuroscience • Theoretical approaches include computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology. • Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science, plus evidence from neuropsychology and computational.
…Limitation 0f Cognitive Neuroscience • Relating to the validity of the data collected (results from the study). • Can the result be generalized to other situation since each individual (respondents) participated in the study have significant individual differences???