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File Management
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  1. File Management

  2. File Managemnet • File Concept • Access Methods • Directory Structure • File-System Mounting • File Sharing • File-System Structure • File-System Implementation • Directory Implementation • Allocation Methods • Free-Space Management

  3. Objectives • To explain the function of file systems • To describe the interfaces to file systems • To discuss file-system design tradeoffs, including access methods, file sharing, file locking, and directory structures • To explore file-system protection

  4. File Concept • Contiguous logical address space • Types: • Data • numeric • character • binary • Program

  5. File Structure • None - sequence of words, bytes • Simple record structure • Lines • Fixed length • Variable length • Complex Structures • Formatted document • Relocatable load file • Can simulate last two with first method by inserting appropriate control characters • Who decides: • Operating system • Program

  6. File Attributes • Name – only information kept in human-readable form • Identifier – unique tag (number) identifies file within file system • Type – needed for systems that support different types • Location – pointer to file location on device • Size – current file size • Protection – controls who can do reading, writing, executing • Time, date, and user identification – data for protection, security, and usage monitoring • Information about files are kept in the directory structure, which is maintained on the disk

  7. File Operations • File is an abstract data type • Create • Write • Read • Reposition within file • Delete • Truncate • Open(Fi) – search the directory structure on disk for entry Fi, and move the content of entry to memory • Close (Fi) – move the content of entry Fi in memory to directory structure on disk

  8. Open Files • Several pieces of data are needed to manage open files: • File pointer: pointer to last read/write location, per process that has the file open • File-open count: counter of number of times a file is open – to allow removal of data from open-file table when last processes closes it • Disk location of the file: cache of data access information • Access rights: per-process access mode information

  9. Open File Locking • Provided by some operating systems and file systems • Mediates access to a file • Mandatory or advisory: • Mandatory – access is denied depending on locks held and requested • Advisory – processes can find status of locks and decide what to do

  10. File Locking Example – Java API import java.io.*; import java.nio.channels.*; public class LockingExample { public static final boolean EXCLUSIVE = false; public static final boolean SHARED = true; public static void main(String arsg[]) throws IOException { FileLock sharedLock = null; FileLock exclusiveLock = null; try { RandomAccessFile raf = new RandomAccessFile("file.txt", "rw"); // get the channel for the file FileChannel ch = raf.getChannel(); // this locks the first half of the file - exclusive exclusiveLock = ch.lock(0, raf.length()/2, EXCLUSIVE); /** Now modify the data . . . */ // release the lock exclusiveLock.release();

  11. File Locking Example – Java API (Cont.) // this locks the second half of the file - shared sharedLock = ch.lock(raf.length()/2+1, raf.length(), SHARED); /** Now read the data . . . */ // release the lock sharedLock.release(); }catch (java.io.IOException ioe) { System.err.println(ioe); }finally { if (exclusiveLock != null) exclusiveLock.release(); if (sharedLock != null) sharedLock.release(); } } }

  12. File Types – Name, Extension

  13. Access Methods • Sequential Access read next write next reset no read after last write (rewrite) • Direct Access read n write n position to n read next write next rewrite n n = relative block number

  14. Sequential-access File

  15. Simulation of Sequential Access on Direct-access File

  16. Example of Index and Relative Files

  17. Directory Structure • A collection of nodes containing information about all files Directory Files F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4 F n Both the directory structure and the files reside on disk Backups of these two structures are kept on tapes

  18. Disk Structure Disk can be subdivided into partitions Disks or partitions can be RAID protected against failure Disk or partition can be used raw– without a file system, or formattedwith a file system Partitions also known as minidisks, slices Entity containing file system known as a volume Each volume containing file system also tracks that file system’s info in device directoryor volume table of contents As well as general-purpose file systemsthere are many special-purpose file systems, frequently all within the same operating system or computer

  19. A Typical File-system Organization

  20. Operations Performed on Directory • Search for a file • Create a file • Delete a file • List a directory • Rename a file • Traverse the file system

  21. Organize the Directory (Logically) to Obtain • Efficiency – locating a file quickly • Naming – convenient to users • Two users can have same name for different files • The same file can have several different names • Grouping – logical grouping of files by properties, (e.g., all Java programs, all games, …)

  22. Single-Level Directory • A single directory for all users Naming problem Grouping problem

  23. Two-Level Directory • Separate directory for each user • Path name • Can have the same file name for different user • Efficient searching • No grouping capability

  24. Tree-Structured Directories

  25. Tree-Structured Directories (Cont.) • Efficient searching • Grouping Capability • Current directory (working directory) • cd /spell/mail/prog • type list

  26. Tree-Structured Directories (Cont) • Absolute or relative path name • Creating a new file is done in current directory • Delete a file rm <file-name> • Creating a new subdirectory is done in current directory mkdir <dir-name> Example: if in current directory /mail mkdir count mail prog copy prt exp count Deleting “mail”  deleting the entire subtree rooted by “mail”

  27. Acyclic-Graph Directories • Have shared subdirectories and files

  28. Acyclic-Graph Directories (Cont.) • Two different names (aliasing) • If dict deletes list dangling pointer Solutions: • Backpointers, so we can delete all pointersVariable size records a problem • Backpointers using a daisy chain organization • Entry-hold-count solution • New directory entry type • Link – another name (pointer) to an existing file • Resolve the link – follow pointer to locate the file

  29. General Graph Directory

  30. General Graph Directory (Cont.) • How do we guarantee no cycles? • Allow only links to file not subdirectories • Garbage collection • Every time a new link is added use a cycle detection algorithm to determine whether it is OK

  31. File System Mounting • A file system must be mounted before it can be accessed • A unmounted file system (i.e., Fig. 11-11(b)) is mounted at a mount point

  32. (a) Existing (b) Unmounted Partition

  33. Mount Point

  34. File Sharing • Sharing of files on multi-user systems is desirable • Sharing may be done through a protection scheme • On distributed systems, files may be shared across a network • Network File System (NFS) is a common distributed file-sharing method

  35. File Sharing – Multiple Users • User IDs identify users, allowing permissions and protections to be per-user • Group IDs allow users to be in groups, permitting group access rights

  36. File Sharing – Remote File Systems • Uses networking to allow file system access between systems • Manually via programs like FTP • Automatically, seamlessly using distributed file systems • Semi automatically via theworld wide web • Client-server model allows clients to mount remote file systems from servers • Server can serve multiple clients • Client and user-on-client identification is insecure or complicated • NFS is standard UNIX client-server file sharing protocol • CIFS is standard Windows protocol • Standard operating system file calls are translated into remote calls • Distributed Information Systems (distributed naming services) such as LDAP, DNS, NIS, Active Directory implement unified access to information needed for remote computing

  37. File Sharing – Failure Modes • Remote file systems add new failure modes, due to network failure, server failure • Recovery from failure can involve state information about status of each remote request • Stateless protocols such as NFS include all information in each request, allowing easy recovery but less security

  38. File Sharing – Consistency Semantics • Consistency semantics specify how multiple users are to access a shared file simultaneously • Similar to Ch 7 process synchronization algorithms • Tend to be less complex due to disk I/O and network latency (for remote file systems • Andrew File System (AFS) implemented complex remote file sharing semantics • Unix file system (UFS) implements: • Writes to an open file visible immediately to other users of the same open file • Sharing file pointer to allow multiple users to read and write concurrently • AFS has session semantics • Writes only visible to sessions starting after the file is closed

  39. Protection • File owner/creator should be able to control: • what can be done • by whom • Types of access • Read • Write • Execute • Append • Delete • List

  40. Access Lists and Groups • Mode of access: read, write, execute • Three classes of users RWX a) owner access 7  1 1 1 RWX b) group access 6  1 1 0 RWX c) public access 1  0 0 1 • Ask manager to create a group (unique name), say G, and add some users to the group. • For a particular file (say game) or subdirectory, define an appropriate access. owner group public chmod 761 game Attach a group to a file chgrp G game

  41. File-System Structure • File structure • Logical storage unit • Collection of related information • File systemresides on secondary storage (disks) • Provided user interface to storage, mapping logical to physical • Provides efficient and convenient access to disk by allowing data to be stored, located retrieved easily • Disk provides in-place rewrite and random access • I/O transfers performed in blocks of sectors (usually 512 bytes) • File control block– storage structure consisting of information about a file • Device drivercontrols the physical device • File system organized into layers

  42. Layered File System

  43. File System Layers • Device drivers manage I/O devices at the I/O control layer • Given commands like “read drive1, cylinder 72, track 2, sector 10, into memory location 1060” outputs low-level hardware specific commands to hardware controller • Basic file system given command like “retrieve block 123” translates to device driver • Also manages memory buffers and caches (allocation, freeing, replacement) • Buffers hold data in transit • Caches hold frequently used data • File organization module understands files, logical address, and physical blocks • Translates logical block # to physical block # • Manages free space, disk allocation

  44. File System Layers (Cont.) • Logical file system manages metadata information • Translates file name into file number, file handle, location by maintaining file control blocks (inodes in Unix) • Directory management • Protection • Layering useful for reducing complexity and redundancy, but adds overhead and can decrease performance • Logical layers can be implemented by any coding method according to OS designer • Many file systems, sometimes many within an operating system • Each with its own format (CD-ROM is ISO 9660; Unix has UFS, FFS; Windows has FAT, FAT32, NTFS as well as floppy, CD, DVD Blu-ray, Linux has more than 40 types, with extended file system ext2 and ext3 leading; plus distributed file systems, etc) • New ones still arriving – ZFS, GoogleFS, Oracle ASM, FUSE

  45. File-System Implementation • We have system calls at the API level, but how do we implement their functions? • On-disk and in-memory structures • Boot control blockcontains info needed by system to boot OS from that volume • Needed if volume contains OS, usually first block of volume • Volume control block (superblock, master file table)contains volume details • Total # of blocks, # of free blocks, block size, free block pointers or array • Directory structure organizes the files • Names and inode numbers, master file table • Per-file File Control Block (FCB) contains many details about the file • Inode number, permissions, size, dates • NFTS stores into in master file table using relational DB structures

  46. A Typical File Control Block

  47. In-Memory File System Structures • Mount table storing file system mounts, mount points, file system types • The following figure illustrates the necessary file system structures provided by the operating systems • Figure 12-3(a) refers to opening a file • Figure 12-3(b) refers to reading a file • Plus buffers hold data blocks from secondary storage • Open returns a file handle for subsequent use • Data from read eventually copied to specified user process memory address

  48. In-Memory File System Structures

  49. Partitions and Mounting • Partition can be a volume containing a file system (“cooked”) or raw – just a sequence of blocks with no file system • Boot block can point to boot volume or boot loader set of blocks that contain enough code to know how to load the kernel from the file system • Or a boot management program for multi-os booting • Root partition contains the OS, other partitions can hold other Oses, other file systems, or be raw • Mounted at boot time • Other partitions can mount automatically or manually • At mount time, file system consistency checked • Is all metadata correct? • If not, fix it, try again • If yes, add to mount table, allow access

  50. Allocation Methods - Contiguous • An allocation method refers to how disk blocks are allocated for files: • Contiguous allocation – each file occupies set of contiguous blocks • Best performance in most cases • Simple – only starting location (block #) and length (number of blocks) are required • Problems include finding space for file, knowing file size, external fragmentation, need for compaction off-line (downtime) or on-line