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CHELATED MINERALS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION. Rajendran, C.Kathirvelan and V.Balakrishnan Madras Veterinary College Chennai, INDIA. INTRODUCTION. Role of Minerals : 7 macro minerals 9 micro mineral. Minerals fed to Cattle Role as Buffer Feed intake milk production

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slide1

CHELATED MINERALS IN

ANIMAL NUTRITION

Rajendran, C.Kathirvelan and V.Balakrishnan

Madras Veterinary College

Chennai, INDIA

slide2

INTRODUCTION

Role of Minerals:

7 macro minerals

9 micro mineral.

Minerals fed to Cattle

Role as Buffer

Feed intake

milk production

Enhance milk composition

Sustain health

slide3

“All Physiological Function”

  • Mineral deficiency occur
  • All Livestock & Poultry
  • May be sufficient amount in diet
  • Interaction between minerals
  • Presence of Anti nutritional factors
          • Phytate
          • Oxalate
          • Mimosine
          • Gossypol
slide4

Minerals

Extent of absorption (%)

Copper

1-3%

Manganese

3-4%

Iron

7-10%

Cobalt

Extend of mineral absorption in ruminant

25 %

Non-ruminant little higher with mineral

  • Factor affecting absorption
  • Chemical form – Organic, Inorganic
  • Other dietary factor –pH, Solubility etc.,
slide5

How to increase absorption

  • Complexing inorganic element with organic compound. This is called ‘Chelates’.
  • Chelates :
  • It is a cyclic compound which is formed between an organic molecule and a metallic ion. Held with in the organic molecule as if by a “claw”.
  • Chelate -Greek word - ‘Claw’
  • Naturally occurring chelates :
          • Chlorophyll's
          • Cytochrome
          • Haemoglobin
          • Vitamin B12
slide6

Classification of organic minerals

  • Metal (specific amino acid) Complex
  • Metal Aminoacid Complex
  • Metal Aminoacid Chelate
  • Mineral proteinnates
  • Mineral polysaccharide complex
slide7

NH3

Cu

Complexation and Chelates

Cu2 + NH3 [Cu (NH3)2 + NH3

(Lewis acid) (Lewis base)

COMPLEX

[Cu (NH3)2]

  • Metalic ion + Ligand Complex
  • complex may be as simple as only one bond
  • Or complex contain many bond - Chelates

Metal Complex

slide9

Classification of organic minerals

Metal (specific amino acid) Complex – The product resulting from complexing a soluble metal salt with a specific amino acid. Minimum metal must be declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be declared as a specific metal, i.e copper lysine complex, zinc lysine complex etc.

Examples are:

  • Copper lysine complex
  • Zinc lysine complex
  • Ferric methionine complex
  • Manganese methionine complex
  • Zinc methionine complex
slide10

Classification of organic minerals

Metal Aminoacid Complex – Product resulting from complexing of a soluble metal salt (such as copper or manganese, etc) with an amino acid(s). Minimum metal content must declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient.

Examples are:

  • Copper amino acid complex
  • Zinc amino acid complex
  • Magnesium amino acid complex
  • Iron amino acid complex
  • Calcium amino acid complex
  • Potassium amino acid complex
  • Manganese amino acid complex
slide11

Classification of organic minerals

Metal Aminoacid Chelate – The product resulting from the reaction of a metal ion from a soluble metal salt with amino acids, with a mole ratio of one mole of metal to one to three (preferably two) moles of amino acids to form coordinate covalent bonds.

Amino acids molecular weight must be approximately 150 the chelate molecular weight must not exceed 800. The minimum metal content must be declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient,

  • Magnesium amino acid chelate
  • Manganese amino acid chelate
  • Zinc amino acid chelate

Examples are:

  • Calcium amino acid chelate
  • Cobalt amino acid chelate
  • Copper amino acid chelate
  • Iron amino acid chelate
slide12

Classification of organic minerals

Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein. It must be declared as a ingredient as the specific metal proteinate.

Examples are:

  • Copper proteinate
  • Zinc proteinate
  • Magnesium proteinate
  • Iron proteinate
  • Cobalt proteinate
  • Manganese proteinate
  • Calcium proteinate
slide13

Classification of organic minerals

Metal Polysaccharide Complex – is the product resulting from complexing of a soluble salt with a polysaccharide solution declared as a ingredient as the specific metal complex

Examples are:

  • Copper polysaccharide complex
  • Iron polysaccharide complex
  • Zinc polysaccharide complex
  • Magnesium polysaccharide complex
slide14

How to prepare a chelate

By reaction

mineral salt +

enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptide

Controlled condition

Ligand bind the metal atom at one or more point

Form Ring

slide15

Primary chelated mineral used in animal feeds are

Zinc

Iron

Manganese

Cobalt

Copper

These are “transitional” element

It prefer to form co-ordinate covalent bond- a hybrid form of linkage – stable complex

Ca, Mg, k

slide16

Technology for preparation of chelated minerals

Hydrolysis of Protein

Separation by centrifuge

and ultrafiltration

Chelation process

Removal of unbound mineral

Drying grinding and storage

Dinhh and Aruna Chhabra, 2003

slide17

Chelated minerals...

Factors influencing stability

  • Charge / radius :
  • Neural binder – more polar – Higher tendency to coordinate metal ion.
  • Alkaline binder – Stabilization by formation of covalent bond
  • Chelation effect :
          • Mono dentate – less stable
          • Multi dentate – more stable
  • Dimensions of Chelation :
          • 5 term
          • 6 term
  • 7. Shape: Steric Tension

High stability

slide18

Use of chelates in Animal Nutrition

  • Main Objectives :
  • Reduction of antagonism, interferences and competition among minerals.
  • Improve the bioavailability of minerals
  • Counteract antinutritional factors, which affecting minerals
  • Performance improvement
  • Health improvement (immune status, functional nutrition)
  • over all animal welfare
  • Improvement in animal produces quality (meat, milk, egg, wool etc.,)
  • Reduce degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins in premixes and feed.
  • Protect environment by reducing metal pollution.
slide19

Mode of action

Stable in rumen environment & abomasum

Delivered in small intestine as such.

Absorbed through active transport (more blood level)

It act as biological complex (more tissue level)

Enter into different pool

Metabolizable in differently(Neathery et al 1972) (Pharmaco-dyanamics nutrient) (using 65Zn)

slide21

Mineral Amino Acid complex

Zinc methionine

Zinc lysine

Manganese methionine

Iron methionine

Copper lysine

Zinc methionine has been studied greatest extend.

Not much research on zinc lysine & iron methionine in ruminants.

slide22

Zinc mehionine

Not degraded

Remain intact

Bind with feed particle or micro organism

So no insoluble complex

Sperars 1989

Semi purifical diet deficient in zinc ZM compared with zinc oxide.

Absorption similar

Metabolized differently, Zno. Excreted more through urine.

slide23

CONCLUSION

  • Chelated minerals usually cost more, per unit of metal element, than the same metal in inorganic form.
  • Historically the argument against chelates was that increased use of inorganics was more economic than feeding chelates.
  • However, there is indication that in some situations, chelates can achieve biologic endpoints that inorganics cannot.
slide24

Chelated mineral can be used when more amount of antinutritional factor or interference affects mineral utilization

  • It can be used as immuno-stimulant but more data is needed.