CHELATED MINERALS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION. Rajendran, C.Kathirvelan and V.Balakrishnan Madras Veterinary College Chennai, INDIA. INTRODUCTION. Role of Minerals : 7 macro minerals 9 micro mineral. Minerals fed to Cattle Role as Buffer Feed intake milk production
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Rajendran, C.Kathirvelan and V.Balakrishnan
Madras Veterinary College
Role of Minerals:
7 macro minerals
9 micro mineral.
Minerals fed to Cattle
Role as Buffer
Enhance milk composition
Extent of absorption (%)
Extend of mineral absorption in ruminant
Non-ruminant little higher with mineral
Complexation and Chelates
Cu2 + NH3 [Cu (NH3)2 + NH3
(Lewis acid) (Lewis base)
Metal (specific amino acid) Complex – The product resulting from complexing a soluble metal salt with a specific amino acid. Minimum metal must be declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be declared as a specific metal, i.e copper lysine complex, zinc lysine complex etc.
Metal Aminoacid Complex – Product resulting from complexing of a soluble metal salt (such as copper or manganese, etc) with an amino acid(s). Minimum metal content must declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient.
Metal Aminoacid Chelate – The product resulting from the reaction of a metal ion from a soluble metal salt with amino acids, with a mole ratio of one mole of metal to one to three (preferably two) moles of amino acids to form coordinate covalent bonds.
Amino acids molecular weight must be approximately 150 the chelate molecular weight must not exceed 800. The minimum metal content must be declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient,
Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein. It must be declared as a ingredient as the specific metal proteinate.
Metal Polysaccharide Complex – is the product resulting from complexing of a soluble salt with a polysaccharide solution declared as a ingredient as the specific metal complex
mineral salt +
enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptide
Ligand bind the metal atom at one or more point
These are “transitional” element
It prefer to form co-ordinate covalent bond- a hybrid form of linkage – stable complex
Ca, Mg, k
Hydrolysis of Protein
Separation by centrifuge
Removal of unbound mineral
Drying grinding and storage
Dinhh and Aruna Chhabra, 2003
Factors influencing stability
Stable in rumen environment & abomasum
Delivered in small intestine as such.
Absorbed through active transport (more blood level)
It act as biological complex (more tissue level)
Enter into different pool
Metabolizable in differently(Neathery et al 1972) (Pharmaco-dyanamics nutrient) (using 65Zn)
Zinc methionine has been studied greatest extend.
Not much research on zinc lysine & iron methionine in ruminants.
Bind with feed particle or micro organism
So no insoluble complex
Semi purifical diet deficient in zinc ZM compared with zinc oxide.
Metabolized differently, Zno. Excreted more through urine.
Chelated mineral can be used when more amount of antinutritional factor or interference affects mineral utilization