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British cede Kashmir including Ladakh to the Hindu Dogras in 1846Hindu rule in Kashmir continued until Independence in 1947Ladakh part of India until today 1840-1: Kashmir vs. Tibet War Dogra invasion of Tibet repulsed; Tibetans defeated in Ladakh, territory remains with raja of Kashmir
British Develop HimalayasHill stations for monsoon and heat seasons Western Himalayas: Shimla, Mussoorie, Darjeeling, Ooty, Jammu, Kashmir. Eastern Himalayas Darjeeling, Gangtok, Kalimpong, Kurseong, Mirik, Shillong, Imphal
British Military Recruitment: Employment of “Hill Men” of India and Nepalese “Gurkhas”
Modern Nepal:Pan-regional conquests and Final formation after British conflicts
Rana Rule: 1846-1950 Autocratic Era: Country closed to outsiders. No national treasury, only Rana family holdings. Few efforts to develop infrastructure, including public schools, roads, etc. Aggressive Hindu nationalism, including Hindu law imposed. Non-Nepali languages and cultures repressed.
Younghusband Expedition to Lhasa1903-4 Massacres, surrender, forced pact to open roads, telegraph, mail service, Resident in Lhasa
Sikkim In 1642 Persecution of the Nyingmapa sect in Tibet lead to their leaders fleeing the country and taking refuge in Sikkim and Bhutan. Phuntsog Namgyal, the grandson of Khye Bumsa is consecrated as the first Chogyal 1850-present Darjeeling separate from Chogyal as part of British India; becomes “hill station”, tea growing area. 1973 Indian Annexation
Bhutan A FRONTIER NON-GELUGPA TIBETAN STATE in 1616, the Shabdrung Lama repelled numerous Tibetan invasions, unified the many warring regional feudal overlords, and brought all of Bhutan under the influence of the Drukpa Kagyud School.
NEW COUNTRY: In 1907, Ugyen Wangchuk was unanimously elected by all Regional Governors and the Central Monastic Body, at the Punakha Dzong and crowned "Druk Gyalpo" (literally, precious ruler of the dragon people). The present king, the fourth hereditary monarch, is Druk Gyalpo Jigme Singye Wangchuk,
Domestic Culture 120 meters
Recent Issue: National Development based on “Gross National Happiness” and the problem of Ethnic/Cultural Nationalism Responding to new laws requiring proof of citizenship, national dress [gyo] and language [dzong-kha], Nepali-speaking residents fled Bhutan around 1990. Most of the 100,000 were stripped of land and denied claims to citizenship and expelled. As of 2008, most remain in refugee camps in Nepal, the only country that would grant refuge.
Himalayan Frontier as Region of Uprisings: Hill people vs. Plains elites Nepal