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Assessments of Reading at Deeper Levels of Comprehension. Art Graesser Department of Psychology and the Institute for Intelligent Systems. Main Messages . We need assessments of reading comprehension that systematically tap deeper levels of comprehension.
Department of Psychology and the Institute for Intelligent Systems
Morphemes and words
Linguistic style and dialect
Referents of referring expressions
Discourse focus versus presuppositions
Situation models & inferences
Configuration of multiple agents
Genre, registers, rhetorical structures
Local and global coherence
Point of message -- theme
Goals and attitude of author
Five major categories(Kintsch, 1998; Graesser, Millis, & Zwaan, 1997)
Text genre and rhetorical structure
Pragmatic communicationLevels of Language & Discourse
Wisher & Graesser (2007)
(Graesser and Person,1994)
LEVEL 1: SIMPLE or SHALLOW
1. Verification Is X true or false? Did an event occur?
2. Disjunctive Is X, Y, or Z the case?
3. Concept completion Who? What? When? Where?
4. Example What is an example or instance of a category?
LEVEL 2: INTERMEDIATE
5. Feature specification What qualitative properties does entity X have?
6. Quantification What is the value of a quantitative variable? How much?
7. Definition questions What does X mean?
8. Comparison How is X similar to Y? How is X different from Y?
LEVEL 3: COMPLEX or DEEP
9. Interpretation What concept/claim can be inferred from a pattern of data?
10. Causal antecedent Why did an event occur?
11. Causal consequence What are the consequences of an event or state?
12. Goal orientation What are the motives or goals behind an agent’s action?
13. Instrumental/procedural What plan or instrument allows an agent to accomplish a goal?
14. Enablement What object or resource allows an agent to accomplish a goal?
15. Expectation Why did some expected event not occur?
16. Judgmental What value does the answerer place on an idea or advice?
Retrospective think aloud
Multiple choice tests
Question asking & answering
Response signal paradigm
Immediate think aloud
Self-paced reading times
Word naming latencies
Lexical decision latencies
Evoked potentialCognitive and Behavioral Tests in Experimental Psychology
The sun exerts a gravitational force on the earth as the earth moves in its orbit around the sun. Does the earth pull equally on the sun?Explain why?
The sun exerts a gravitational force on the earth.
The earth exerts a gravitational force on the sun.
The two forces are a third-law pair.
The magnitudes of the two forces are the same.
Only the larger object exerts a force.
The force of earth on sun is less than that of
the sun on earth.