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Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory. Mr. P. Leighton St Mary’s 6 th Form College. After today’s session…. You will have a deep understanding of Achievement Motivation which includes… NAF and NAch. Competitiveness. Learned Helplessness.

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achievement motivation and attribution theory

Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory.

Mr. P. Leighton

St Mary’s 6th Form College.

after today s session
After today’s session…
  • You will have a deep understanding of Achievement Motivation which includes…
    • NAF and NAch.
    • Competitiveness.
    • Learned Helplessness.
  • You should also understand Attribution theory which includes…
    • Weiner’s Attribution Model.
    • Attribution retraining.
achievement motivation
Achievement Motivation.
  • Links Personality with the degree of competitiveness shown by an individual.
  • How motivated are you to succeed?
  • Is achievement motivation linked with nature or nurture?
  • Murray (1938) indicated that it is only natural for one to want to surpass another (Nature).
  • Bandura (1977) however, believed competitiveness is a product of learning (Nurture).
interactionists and achievement motivation
Interactionists and Achievement Motivation.
  • Atkinson and McClelland (1976) predicted that motivation is generated through a combination of personality and situational factors, These are…
    • Probability of success: The likelihood of success- when a task is easy or done before.
    • Incentive value of success: The intrinsic value experienced after success. If the task is harder the greater incentive value…Why?
nach and naf
Need to Avoid Failure.

(Low Nach/High Naf)

The fear of failure far outweighs the desire to succeed.

Referred to as low achievers.

Need to Achieve.

(Low Naf/High Nach)

The desire of success far outweighs the fear of failure.

Referred to as high achievers.

NAch and NaF …
task 5mins
Task (5mins)
  • Turn to page 209 and copy down the Diagram and table noting some of the characteristics of NAF and NAch performers.
  • Turn over and copy down the key terms.
atkinson and mcclelland continued
Atkinson and McClelland Continued…
  • The theory best predicted behavioural responses in situations where there is a 50/50 chance of success.
  • This situation is most likely to trigger the motivation to achieve in performers with high achievement traits.
  • They display approach behaviours and mastery orientation characteristics.
  • The incentive value will be high when the chance of success is evenly balanced.
  • Q: What about those with low achievement traits? Write a statement to describe this…
what are the problems with achievement motivation theory
What are the problems with Achievement Motivation Theory?
  • What is success to you?
  • Success can be interpreted in several different ways…
    • Success over other people: Ego Goal Orientation- Beating someone in a race.
    • Personal Improvement: Task Orientation- performance and process goals i.e. Achieving a personal best.
  • Achievement Motivation within sport should be referred to as Competitiveness.
  • The motivation to achieve in sport.
  • Gill and Deeter (1988) confirmed that Athletes are far more competitive than non athletes.
  • However, Athletes favoured performance goals (Task Orientation) whereas the non-athletes preferred the importance of winning (Ego Orientation).
attribution theory
Attribution Theory.
  • What do you attribute your success to?
  • Weiner (1971) saw that there were two areas which affect our attribution levels.
    • The Locus of Causality- internal or external factors.
    • Stability- Stable and un-changeable/ Unstable is temporary i.e. Luck.
    • Control is also mentioned and is a key factor in attribution retraining.
weiner s attribution model reasons for failure and success
Coaches should attribute failure to external factors- why?

External factors are changeable and not under control of the performer: its not their fault!

This helps maintain self-esteem and motivation i.e. “he was lucky to beat you”.

Coaches should attribute success to internal factors- why?

Internal factors mean that the performer is able to succeed because of their talents.

This endorses future expectations of high achievement.

Weiner’s attribution model: Reasons for Failure and Success.
work for you
Work for you…
  • Copy down notes from pages 213-215 paying attention to…
    • Attribution bias
    • Attribution retraining
    • Mastery orientation
    • Learned helplessness