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Developmental Psychology. Psychology concerned with changes in physical and psychological functioning that occur from conception across the entire lifespan Psychologist How and why organisms change Document and explain. Stages. Prenatal-conceptions to birth Infancy-birth to 18 months

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developmental psychology
Developmental Psychology
  • Psychology concerned with changes in physical and psychological functioning that occur from conception across the entire lifespan
  • Psychologist
    • How and why organisms change
    • Document and explain
  • Prenatal-conceptions to birth
  • Infancy-birth to 18 months
  • Early childhood-18 months to 6 yrs
  • Late childhood-6 yrs to 13 yrs
  • Adolescence-13 yrs to 18 yrs
  • Early Adult-20 yrs to 30 yrs
  • Middle Adult-30 yrs to 65 yrs
  • Late adult-65 yrs +
  • Passive, slow process
normative investigation
Normative Investigation

Research efforts designed to describe what is characteristic of a specific age or developmental stage finding landmarks

chronological age
Chronological Age
  • Months/yrs since birth
developmental age
Developmental Age
  • Chronological age at which most children show a particular level of physical or mental development
longitudinal design study
Longitudinal design/study
  • Same individuals repeatedly observed and tested over time, often for many years
cross sectional design
Cross-sectional design
  • Groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time
nature nurture controversy
Nature-nurture Controversy
  • Genetics vs. social
  • Heredity vs. social
  • John Locke
    • Empiricism
    • Blank slate, all learned
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau
    • Nativist
    • Nature or evolution
  • Jean Marc Itard
    • Raised wild boy (12 year old)
    • 1st 5 yrs trained then stopped working
physical development
Physical Development
  • Bodily changes, maturation, and growth that occur in a organism starting with conception and continuing across the life span
  • Zygote
    • Single cell
    • Sperm/egg
prenatal period
Prenatal period
  • 3 wks-heartbeat 1/6 in long
  • 8 wks called fetus-movement
  • 16 wks mom can feel 7 in long
  • Brain growth 250,000 neurons/min
    • Drugs/alcohol abuse
  • Can hear
  • Vision but improves
    • 3 dimensional, color
      • Elenor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960)
        • Visual cliff
  • Head 60% grown @ birth
  • Weight doubles 6 months
  • Weight triples 1 year
  • Age 2 trunk is 50% of adult size
  • Continuing influence of heredity throughout development
  • Age-related physical and behavioral changes characteristic of a species
  • Roll over 3 months
  • Sit up 5 months
  • Crawl 10 months
  • Walk 12 months
  • Attainment of sexual maturity
  • Girls menarche
  • Boys production of live sperm and ability to ejaculate
  • Body image
    • Subjective view of appearance of one’s body
    • Issues-anorexia/bulimia
body image
Body Image
  • Gradual changes into and through adult hood
  • Vision and hearing decline
  • Reproductive and sexual functioning
    • Menopause age 50, women
    • Viable sperms drops age 40, fluid drops age 60
    • Does not drop after 40 if health and relationship
cognitive development
Cognitive Development
  • Process of knowing, imagining, perceiving reasoning, and problems solving
jean piaget 1929 1977
Jean Piaget (1929-1977)
  • Schemes
    • Mental structures that enable individuals to interpret the world
  • Assimilation
    • Modify new environmental information to fit into what is already
  • Accommodation
    • Restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily
stages of cognitive development
Stages of Cognitive Development
  • (0-2) sensory motor
    • Child uses body and senses
    • Object permanence (3 months-8 months)
      • Objects exist independent of individuals’ action or awareness
      • Representational thought
        • Renee Baillargeon (1991)
          • Possible object permanence earlier 3 than months
object permanence
Object Permanence
stages of cognitive development22
Stages of Cognitive Development
  • (2-7) Preoperational
    • Child begins to use mental images or symbols to understand things
    • Egocentrism
      • Cannot take perspective of another person
    • Centrism
      • Early-
      • Child’s inability to take more than one perceptual factor into account @ the same time
    • Conservation
      • Physical properties don’t change when nothing is added or taken away
stages of cognitive development24
Stages of Cognitive Development
  • Concrete operational stage (7-11)
    • Able to use logical schemes but limited to concrete objects
stages of cognitive development25
Stages of Cognitive Development
  • Formal operational (11+)
    • Able to solve abstract problems
foundational theories
Foundational theories
  • Frameworks for initial understanding formulated by children to explain their experiences of the world
  • All ages
social and cultural influences on cognitive dev
Social and cultural influences on cognitive dev.
  • Internalization
    • process through which children absorb knowledge from social context
    • Lev Vygotsky
    • Formal operations cultural
cognitive dev in adults
Cognitive Dev. In Adults
  • No evidence of intellectual decline in elderly
  • Crystallized vs. fluid intelligence
    • Verbal schooling vs. learn quickly and thoroughly
    • Fluid declines with age
    • John Horn
  • Expertise in the fundamental pragmatics of life
use it or lose it
Use it or lose it
  • Important with age
  • Warner Schaie 1994
selective optimization with compensation
Selective optimization with compensation
  • Strategy for successful aging in which one makes the most of gains while minimizing the impact of losses that accompany normal aging
  • Paul Bates and Margaret Baltes (1998)
alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease
  • A chronic organic brain syndrome characterized by gradual loss of memory, decline in intellectual ability and deterioration of personality
  • Over 65-10%
  • Over 85-50%
  • Born with innate capacity
  • Until 8 months no distinction between phonemes due to language ex. (L) ( R) in Japanese
  • Child-directed speech
    • Special form of speech with an exaggerated and high-pitched infonation that adults use to speak to infants and young children
    • Learn names by 5 months
word meaning
Word meaning
  • 18 months (word explosion)
  • Age 6 14,000 words
  • 9 words/ day
  • Overextension ex. Milk means all drinks
  • Mutually exclusive
    • Each object has only one label ex. Fire engine/truck/vehicle
  • Norm Chomsky (1976)
  • Born with mental structures that facilitate comprehension and production of language ex. Deaf people learn grammar
  • Language-making capacity
    • Innate guidelines or operating principles that children bring to the task of learning a language
    • Dan Slobin (1985)
      • Keep track of order and meaning expressed in language
      • Telegraphic speech
        • Leaves out verbs, gets point across
        • For adult to understand must understand context
        • Example for language making capacity
      • Overregularization
        • Grammar error, rules of language are applied too widely
        • Ex. By adding/ed/ makes past tense add “ed” to do and break or add /s/ to foot
social development
Social Development
  • Ways individuals’ social interactions and expectations change across the lifespan.
  • Culture and environment play large role
  • Psychosocial stages
    • Erik Erikson
    • Successive developmental stages that focus on an individual’s orientation toward self and others
    • Incorporate both the sexual and social aspects of a person’s development and the social conflicts that arise from the interactions between the individual and the social environment
  • Lifelong process whereby an individual’s behavior patterns, values, standards, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society
  • Involves friends, relatives, teachers, etc. who exert pressure on individual
  • Emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver
  • Early survival
  • Imprinting
    • Conrad Lorenz (geese)
    • Primitive form of learning in which some infant animals physically follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see or hear
conrad lorenz
Conrad Lorenz
  • Proximity-prompting signals
    • Baby smiling, crying and vocalizing to signal need for care
      • John Bowl (1973)
  • Strange situation test
    • Mary Ainsworth (1978)
    • Age 1-2
    • Securely attached child
      • Some distress when parent leaves room, seeks comfort when parent returns - returns to play
    • Insecurely attached-avoidant
      • Aloof may avoid parent upon return
    • Insecurely attached-ambivalent resistant
      • Becomes upset anxious when parent leaves, upon parent return hard to sooth, shows anger towards parent
    • Can predict later behavior
parenting styles
Parenting Styles
  • Manner in which parents rear their children
    • Authoritative seen as best
    • Authoritarian type
      • Parents apply discipline with little attention to child's autonomy
    • Indulgent type
      • Parents helpful but fail to teach rules about structure or society
    • Neglecting or permissive type
      • No discipline, non responsive to child’s individuality
parenting practices
Parenting Practices
  • Behaviors that arise in response to particular parent goals
contact comfort
Contact Comfort
  • Harry Harlow (1965)
    • Did not believe in going cupboard theory-attachment due to feeling
  • Comfort derived from an infant’s physical contact with the mother of caregiver
  • Reuses Monkeys Experiment
    • Choose contact comfort over food
  • Other studies show orphaned infants with proper food/water etc. die due to lack of contact
social development in adolescence
Social Development in Adolescence
  • Time of “storm and stress”-myth
  • Margaret Mead(1928) and Ruth Benedict(1938)
    • Argue this to be mainly in Western Culture
social development in adults
Social Development in Adults
  • Intimacy and generativity Erikson
  • Lieben and Arbeiten or love and work-Freud
  • Love and Belonging- Maslow
  • Women's health effected by how good marriage is
social development in adults50
Social Development in Adults
  • Selective social interaction theory
    • As people age, they become more selective in choosing social partners who satisfy their social needs
    • Laura Carstensen (1998)
      • Helps conserve energy, protects
  • Ageism
    • Prejudice against older people
  • Decremental aging
    • By number not ability
gender development sex differences
Gender Development Sex differences
  • Biologically based characteristics that distinguish males and females
  • Hormones and anatomy
  • Psychological phenomenon that refers to learned sex related behaviors and attitude of males and females
gender identity
Gender Identity
  • One’s sense of maleness or femaleness
  • Awareness and acceptance of one's biological sex
gender roles
Gender Roles
  • Set of behaviors and attitudes associated by society with being male or female and expressed publicly by the individual
  • Acquisition
    • Parents play role
    • Eleanor Maccoby
      • Children seek out same sex to play with
moral development morality
Moral Development Morality
  • System of beliefs and values that ensures that individuals will keep their obligations to others in society and will behave in ways that do not interfere with the rights and interests of others
lawrence kohlberg 1965 1981
Lawrence Kohlberg (1965, 1981)
  • Moral reasoning
  • Ties into Piagets cognitive abilities
  • 4 principles of Kohlberg’s stage model
    • 1. At any given time you can only be at one level
    • 2. Everyone goes through stages in fixed order
    • 3. Each stage gets more complex and comprehensive
    • 4. Same stages occur across culture
critique to kohlberg
Critique to Kohlberg
  • Only boys studied-Carol Gilligan (1982)
    • Level of differences between the sexes
    • I.e. caring nature of female
    • Cultural differences