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Budding methods. T-budding or shield budding Patch budding Chip budding. Features of T-budding. widely used for fruit and ornamental trees, as well as roses two methods: “wood in” and “wood out” (i.e., whether the bark of the scion is slipping or not) bark of the stock must be slipping.

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budding methods
Budding methods
  • T-budding or shield budding
  • Patch budding
  • Chip budding
features of t budding
Features of T-budding
  • widely used for fruit and ornamental trees, as well as roses
  • two methods: “wood in” and “wood out” (i.e., whether the bark of the scion is slipping or not)
  • bark of the stock must be slipping
how healing occurs with t budding
How healing occurs with T-budding
  • when bark of the stock is lifted, separation occurs in young xylem
  • primary union is between the phloem on the inner shield face and young xylem on the stock’s surface
  • callus originates almost entirely from rootstock tissue
  • for successful “takes”, a continuous cambium must be established between bud and rootstock
timing the t budding operation
Timing the T-budding operation
  • Fall budding (July to early Sept): budwood needn’t be collected and stored, but budding must be done while the stock is actively growing
  • Spring budding (Mar and Apr): budding must be done before bark stops slipping on the stock, usu. by late spring; budwood must be collected and stored prior to budding
  • June budding (late May to early June): it is used to obtain a 1-yr-old budded tree in 1 season
chip budding
Chip budding
  • a chip (with a bud) is placed into a stock that has had a chip removed
  • neither stock nor scion needs to have slipping bark
  • cambia of scion chip and stock must be matched closely
patch budding
Patch budding
  • scion patch (w/bud, w/o wood) is slid off sideways, placed into a stock after the bark “patch” is removed
  • works well on thick-barked species (e.g., pecans, walnuts)
  • requires bark of both scion and stock to be slipping easily
  • usu. done in late summer or early fall
factors influencing success in grafting budding
Factors influencing success in grafting/budding
  • the kind of plant
  • the healing environment (temperature, moisture, oxygen)
  • growth activity of stock and/or scion
  • grafting technique
  • viruses, insects, disease
  • polarity
  • limits (closeness of the botanical relationship)
  • graft incompatibility
symptoms of graft incompatibility
Symptoms of graft incompatibility
  • yellowing foliage (esp. in the latter part of the growing season)
  • premature death of the tree
  • difference in growth rate or vigor of the scion, compared with the stock
  • graft components break apart cleanly at the graft union
types of graft incompatibility
Types of graft incompatibility
  • anatomical flaws (e.g., vascular discontinuity)
  • localized incompatibility (i.e., requires contact between stock and scion)
  • translocated incompatibility (i.e., not overcome by an interstock)
  • pathogen-induced incompatibility (i.e., a latent virus introduced by grafting from a resistant to a susceptible partner)
translocated incompatibility
Translocated incompatibility
  • ‘Nonpareil’ almond/’Marianna 2624’ plum - incompatible
  • ‘Texas’ almond/’Marianna 2624’ plum - compatible
  • ‘Nonpareil’/’Texas’/’2624’ - incompatible (phloem breakdown at the Texas/2624 junction means that the “incompatibility factor” is translocated)