Ancient India The Indus River Civilization
The First people of the Indus Valley The Harrapans people created a city right on the banks of the Indus River around 5000 BCE. This City was unique because it was planned before it was built and had a plan for garbage disposal. Slums developed as the rich separated from the poor sections of town MohenjoDaro--- Sewers carried waste away from town
Harrappa The ruins as they appear today The ruins are evidence of a well planned city The city was abandoned around 1500 BCE probably due to Aryan invasion
Artifacts tell the story Examine these artifacts. What was their purpose?
Artifacts of daily life Usage?
Aryan Invasion • Around 1500 BCE, the Harrapans were invaded by a group of nomads from Siberia. • The Harrapans had existed in isolation and peace for many years. Now they had to contend with invasion. • Cultural Diffusion occurred as the Aryans introduce Sanskrit writing, iron technology, and the Caste System.
The Caste System • Social Class dictated the way of life for thousands of Indian people. • Brahmin • Kshatriya
Vaishya • Sudra
Hinduism Begins to develop • This faith involves polytheism, reincarnation, concept of heaven, sacred animals, social class distinction • Hinduism contains over 1,000 gods and demigods • Hindu Epics= long stories which include histories of India’s ancient dynasties. These texts serve as a cultural and mythological base for Indian society. a. Mahabharata= explains the gods and history of India’s dynasties --BhagavadGita = a substory in the Mahabharata served as inspiration to Mahatma Gandhi
Epics of Hinduism • B. Ramayana---a story of devotion and duty Hero Rama rescues his wife Sita from dark lord Ravana, king of demons. Sugriva, king of the monkeys offered his help.
The Principles • Reincarnation= your soul is reborn after death • Karma= a force generated by your actions which will determine where and how you will be reborn in the next life • Dharma= rules the Karma. Laws requiring people to do their duties associated with their caste • Guru= a teacher • Raja= King • Maharaja= Prince
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama a philisophical / religious movement based upon the teachings of real life Siddartha Gautama. Life is full of suffering Suffering is caused be selfish desires End Suffering by ending selfish desires
The Middle Path • 4. Follow the Middle Path!!! • These equal the 4 NOBLE TRUTHS • WHAT ARE THE STEPS TO THE MIDDLE PATH? • A. right mind b. Right intention • C. right speech d. right action • E. right livelihood f. right effort • G. right mindfulness h. right concentration
The Result is Nirvana! Ultimate Reality!====Reunion with the Great World Soul! The selfish side of us is dead now. Reincarnation ends
The difference between Hinduism and Buddhism Buddha grew up as a Hindu • Siddhartha accepted reincarnation but rejected the caste system, appealed to the down hearted, rejected the many gods and goddesses of Hinduism, forbade his followers from worshipping him. • Siddhartha died in 480bce at age 80 in modern day Nepal. His followers spread his teachings across Asia
Buddhist Architecture The Stupa Formed after Buddha’s Folded robe with his begging bowl on top
Buddhist Texts • Tripitaka (Pali Canon) • Mahayana Sutras • Mahayana Buddhism reveres the Tripitaka as a sacred text, but adds to it the Sutras, which reflect distinctively Mahayana concepts. Most of the Mahayana Sutras, which number over two thousand, were written between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the period in which Mahayana Buddhism developed. Different divisions of Mahayana Buddhism emphasize different Sutras, but some texts, like the Lotus Sutra and Heart Sutra, are important to most branches of Mahayana. • Tibetan Book of the Dead
Versions of Buddhism Today Much to choose from! • Mahayana • Vajrayana • Theravada Buddhism • Tibetan Buddhism • Chán • Tiantai • Pure Land • Zen • Nichiren
Indian Dynasties • Mauryan • Founded by Chandra Gupta Maurya • (324 BCE -301 BCE) • Spread Law and Order • Divided the land into Provinces • Contacted the Greeks • Mauryan under Asoka • Converted to Buddhism • Created Hospitals • Created Veterianary Clinics for animals • Rest areas for travelers
Indian Dynasties • Kushan Empire • Conquered Northern India • Ran the Silk Road between the Roman Empire and China • Traded spices with Europe and Asia • Gupta Empire • Trade with China • Cloth, salt, iron • New temples for Hinduism and Buddhism • (375-415 CE)