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SEMINAR ON SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES POLICY AND COASTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. AUGUST 7, 2004, KARACHI. ROLE OF FISHER WOMENS IN FISHERY INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN. PRESENTATION BY Tayyaba Ahmed. SEA AS A SOURCE OF FOOD. Wisdom of nature: 1/4th land & 3/4th water.

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seminar on sustainable fisheries policy and coastal resources management

SEMINAR ON SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES POLICY AND COASTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

AUGUST 7, 2004, KARACHI

sea as a source of food
SEA AS A SOURCE OF FOOD
  • Wisdom of nature: 1/4th land & 3/4th water.
  • Many benefits & uses of seas and oceans: Most important being a source of food for humans.
sea as a source of food4
SEA AS A SOURCE OF FOOD
  • Importance of sea food increasing day by day because of shortage of traditional grain food on the 1/4th part of the land on earth.
  • Those nation and countries of the world who have realized its importance are in the process of R&D to gain maximum benefit of the sea.
present situation of fisheries
PRESENT SITUATION OF FISHERIES
  • Fisheries sector of Pakistan represents an important source of employment, income and foreign exchange earnings.
  • It contributes only 0.8% of total nation GDP and 3.7% of agriculture.
present situation of fisheries6
PRESENT SITUATION OF FISHERIES
  • The major source of fish in Pakistan are the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Pakistan which extends upto 200 N.M and 8.5 million Hectares of Inland water.
  • About 26% of total production consumed locally, the rest in either exported of resources as fish meal, the supply of fish per capita is estimated to be 1.1kg/year.
present situation of fisheries7
PRESENT SITUATION OF FISHERIES
  • Government of Pakistan is taking keen interest in the development of fisheries sector.
  • Enhancement of fish production, measures in exports earnings as well as domestic consumption of fish diversification of fishing efforts, utilization of the fishermen communities.
role of fishery industry in the economy of pakistan
ROLE OF FISHERY INDUSTRY IN THE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  • Fisheries play an important role in national economy.
  • Provides employment to about 300,000 fishermen directly and 400,000 people in ancillary industries.
fish harbours of pakistan
FISH HARBOURS OF PAKISTAN
  • Karachi Fisheries Harbour
  • Korangi Fish Harbour
  • Pasni Fish Harbour
  • Gawadar Fish Harbour
export of fisheries products
EXPORT OF FISHERIES PRODUCTS
  • Fish and fishery products are processed and Exported to over 50 countries.
  • 50% of Fishery Products are exported to European Union Countries.
  • 20% to USA, & remaining 30% to other Countries.
export of fisheries products12
Canada

USA

Denmark

Japan

Holland

Norway

Iceland

Korea

Hong Kong

Taiwan

Singapore

Malaysia

EXPORT OF FISHERIES PRODUCTS
number of fish workers engaged in fisheries sector
NUMBER OF FISH WORKERS ENGAGED IN FISHERIES SECTOR
  • Fisheries sector in Pakistan provides employment to about 300,000 fishermen directly.
  • In addition, another 400,000 people are employed in ancillary industries
major fisherfolk settlements town in sindh
Mubarak village

Mauripur

Hawks Bay

Ibrahim Hyderi

Rehri Village

Salih Abad

Bhit Island

Baba Island

Shamas Pir.

Kakka Village

Kiamari

Chasma Village

Lath Basti

Shah Bandar

Keti Bunder

Jaati

Badin, etc.

MAJOR FISHERFOLK SETTLEMENTS/TOWN IN SINDH
conclusion of a workshop that
CONCLUSION OF A WORKSHOP THAT
  • “Without women in fisheries, no fish in the sea” was the conclusion of a workshop that was conducted by the women in fisheries programme of the international collective in support of fish workers in Senegal in 1996.
working women in fish industry of the world
WORKING WOMEN IN FISH INDUSTRY OF THE WORLD
  • According to an Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) report of 1996, more than 21 million people worldwide are engaged in fisheries sector.
  • 90% are small scale operators.
  • 95% live in developing countries.
working women in fish industry of the world17
WORKING WOMEN IN FISH INDUSTRY OF THE WORLD
  • Coastal fisheries in the south and Southeast Asia alone employ around 6.7 million people directly.
  • Approximately 15 million if the processing sector is included.
  • 50% are women. About 200 million people around the world depend on fisheries for an income.
social status of fisher women in pakistan
SOCIAL STATUS OF FISHER WOMEN IN PAKISTAN
  • Fisherfolk Society in Pakistan has remained liberal compared to the agriculture society of the Country.
  • All resources endowed by nature are considered community property.
social status of fisher women in pakistan19
SOCIAL STATUS OF FISHER WOMEN IN PAKISTAN
  • The women distribute the harvests, and serve as virtual heads of their families.
  • There is no ‘veil system’ for women in fisherfolk society. The women have greater roles in family matters because the men usually spend most of their time in fishing.
social status of fisher women in pakistan20
SOCIAL STATUS OF FISHER WOMEN IN PAKISTAN
  • Everyone, including the men, is identified by their mother, not their father.
  • Karachi –was also named after a woman, “Mai Kalochi”, who was the chieftain of a small fishing business & other trades in her village.
social status of fisher women in pakistan21
SOCIAL STATUS OF FISHER WOMEN IN PAKISTAN
  • Presently, however, there are 2 diverse trends in the fisherfolk communities with regard to status of women. Among the traditional fisherfolk communities there is liberal thinking about women.
social status of fisher women in pakistan22
SOCIAL STATUS OF FISHER WOMEN IN PAKISTAN
  • A large number of agriculture communities have also diverted their livelihood towards fisheries after the destruction of Agriculture sector because of the Indus Delta.
  • As such women are not only deprived of their basic rights and freedom but are also confined inside the 4 walls of the house in the name of morality and decency.
social status of fisher women in pakistan23
SOCIAL STATUS OF FISHER WOMEN IN PAKISTAN
  • With the shift of this population towards fisheries livelihoods, they brought along their rigid traditions with regard to women in exclusion and continue to implement the veil system even with their transfer to the fisherfolk.
working women in fishery industry of pakistan
WORKING WOMEN IN FISHERY INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN
  • About 10,000 Women Workers are associated with the Fisheries Industry and are employed in 30 Registered Processing Plants in Pakistan and more than 50 “Warrahs” ( being run by the contractors)
working women in fishery industry of pakistan25
WORKING WOMEN IN FISHERY INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN
  • 27 Processing Plants and more than 50 Warrahs are located in different Areas of Karachi Coast.
  • While 04 Processing Plants are in Gwadar and Pasni.
working women in fishery industry of pakistan26
WORKING WOMEN IN FISHERY INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN
  • 23 Plants : Fish Harbor,

West Wharf, Karachi.

  • 02 Plants : S.I.T.E. Area

Karachi.

  • 02 Plants : Korangi Industrial Area
  • 04 Plants : Gwadar & Pasni.
working environment
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • Health of employees depends upon the environment of working place where they work. If environment of working place is clean and healthy then health of employees will also be good and if the working environment is unhealthy then the health of employees will not be good.
working environment28
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • Women Workers peel/clean the ice covered shrimps, fish and crabs with their bare hands. Rubber boots, gloves or any such provisions are unheard of in there Processing Plants or “Warrahs”.
  • The fear of losing their job makes them hide their cuts and wounds from the employer.
working environment29
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • Sitting constantly in an unchanged position for many hours causes trouble in the spinal column of these Women Workers. This group includes women of all ages, the youngest being of the age of 15 years. This problem can be fatal for Pregnant Women.
working environment30
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • In Warrahs there in no protection from heat. At one hand these women workers are working in hot weather while at another hand they are handling with ice covered shrimps. Since these women are simultaneously exposed to hot and cold conditions, they are early susceptible to disease.
working environment31
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • There is no proper Toilet facilities available in Warrahs. If a woman worker who starts her work in the morning say at about 4:00 am and keep sits peeling shrimps for 7-8 hours, sitting in a same position, needs such facilities there.
working environment32
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • The floors of Warrahs always remain wet. Due to falling of shrimp’s wastage the floor looked like as grease has been rubbed on it. Thus making the floor slippery for women workers to work.
working environment33
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • No Dispensary or First-Aid facilities are found in these Warrahs.
  • No hand washing facilities are provided at the work place in these Warrahs.
working environment34
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • In some of the Warrah there is one toilet for 100 women workers and the condition of this toilets is deplorable and unhygienic.
  • There is no provision of gloves Apron/coat for these working women.
working environment35
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • No changing room to change into working cloth, thus forcing working women to work in their daily wear.
  • Proper working tools are not provided to working women, thus hands and finger of these working women are injured.
  • No proper lighting system, which makes difficult to these women workers to work during night.
working environment36
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • There is no proper drainage system in warrah, to drain out the filthy water of ice covered shrimps and other Sea food products.
  • There is no system of Garbage disposal of fish, shrimp, shells and crabs wastage.
working hours working day
WORKING HOURS / WORKING DAY
  • No fixed working hours are observed in these “Warrahs” and Women Workers are called in whenever the catch arrives, even if it is in the middle of the night, depriving them of a night’s break.
working hours working day38
WORKING HOURS / WORKING DAY
  • The shrimps perish fast and the peeling has to be done before noon each day. Thus, work for these women begins at 4am and ends finally at midday.
  • All days in a week are working days depending upon the receipt and arrival of “catch” in these Warrahs. It could be Sunday or on any National Holidays.
working hours working day39
WORKING HOURS / WORKING DAY
  • During the season when maximum catch of sea food is brought in the “Warrahs” the women workers are forced to work for a continuous period of 14 to 15 hours.
other activities of women workers in fishery sector
Drying of fish

Cleaning of fish

Fish meal

plants

Fish meal

Powder solid to

poultry form

Processing of

crabs

Peeling shrimps

Grading

Sorting

Packing

OTHER ACTIVITIES OF WOMEN WORKERS IN FISHERY SECTOR
other activities of women workers in fishery sector41
OTHER ACTIVITIES OF WOMEN WORKERS IN FISHERY SECTOR
  • As of today a small number of Women Workers are involved in weaving nets, making fish baskets, etc as wage labourers.
health conditions of fisher womens
HEALTH CONDITIONS OF FISHER WOMENS

Due to un hygienic condition of Warrahs, the women workers may effected by following illness/ diseases:

  • Malaria
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Tuberculosis
  • Skin Disease (coxcomb)
  • Hepatitis-B
  • Back Ache
role of fisher women s in the devolopment of fisheries of pakistan
ROLE OF FISHER WOMEN S IN THE DEVOLOPMENT OF FISHERIES OF PAKISTAN
  • In the past the women usually accompanied the men in their family on fishing trips.
  • The fishermen would usually take the whole family to remote islands, where all of them would help in fishing as well as in cleaning and its drying.
role of fisher womens in the fisheries of pakistan
ROLE OF FISHER WOMENS IN THE FISHERIES OF PAKISTAN
  • The women would sell the fish in the local and remote markets while the men continued fishing.
  • In some cases, when the men leave for major fishing voyages that last 10 to 20 days, the fisher women would continue fishing though at a smaller scale in the shallow waters of coast.
role of fisher womens in the fisheries of pakistan45
ROLE OF FISHER WOMENS IN THE FISHERIES OF PAKISTAN
  • However, with the commercialization of fisheries, expansion of fishing business into an industry and the influx of non-indigenous fishermen everywhere-from the deltaic creeks to the deep waters from coast- the women were slowly and gradually pushed out of fishing activities.
  • With the change in fishing practices, from the family to industrial fishing, role of women in family fishing has come almost to an end in Pakistan.
women in net making activity
WOMEN IN NET MAKING ACTIVITY
  • Fisherwomen were the main artisans of fishing nets and baskets in the sub-continent as well.
  • Different kinds of nets originated from Sindh and Balochistan but it was after 1977 that there was a sudden increase in the variety of nets.
women in net making activity47
WOMEN IN NET MAKING ACTIVITY
  • When fisher women more or less retired from active fishing and focused more on the home, they lost a steady income.
  • The main source of income for fisher women has always been from making cotton –fishing nets, which gave them a stable and regular, if modest, income.
women in net making activity48
WOMEN IN NET MAKING ACTIVITY
  • The earnings from net making depended on the complexity, strength and weight of the net. When nets were made exclusive of cotton thread, fisher women earned Rs. 5 to 10 per day.
women in net making activity49
WOMEN IN NET MAKING ACTIVITY
  • After late 60’s, the process of Modernization, Mechanization and Globalization suddenly hit hard the indigenous cotton net-making profession of the fisherwomen,

pushing them from this profession in the same manner that they were pushed out from fishing.

women workers in fish processing
WOMEN WORKERS IN FISH PROCESSING
  • Women Workers had been and are an integral part of the work force working in the Fishery Industry.
  • These Women Workers carry out all possible sort of work in their capacity.
women workers in fish processing51
WOMEN WORKERS IN FISH PROCESSING
  • With the commercialization and industrialization of Fishery Industry it no longer remains a family-based activity.
  • The Fisheries became “professionalized” with only men being recognized as Fishers and thereby restricting access of Women’s to the resource.
women workers in fish processing52
WOMEN WORKERS IN FISH PROCESSING
  • In areas where export agents took over the catches, Women Worker lost access to fish for sale and were turned into wage Labourers for sorting out and drying the fish for the exporters .
low wages
LOW WAGES
  • The wages of Women Workers in Fisheries Industry are the Lowest.
  • Lowest even what has been allowed in the:
  • Minimum Wages Ordinance 1961, Payment of Wages Act,1936.
  • West Pakistan Minimum Wages for unskilled Workers Ordinance 1969.
low wages54
LOW WAGES
  • One of the examples of poor wages for Women Workers is that 12-16 kilograms peeled shrimp a day fetches them mere Rs. 40 – 60.
  • But despite all these harsh conditions, economic compulsions force them to work to support their families. Their economic condition has deteriorated and poverty has become endemic.
low wages55
LOW WAGES
  • About 1 kg of shrimp is being peeled by a women worker in an hour, more expert women peel even 1¼ to 1½ kilos of shrimp but this is not common.
  • Report name the “Case of Home based sub-contracted women in Pakistan”, if a woman or girl peels 11kgs of shrimp in a day then she earns Rs.88.
demographic status of women
DEMOGRAPHIC STATUS OF WOMEN
  • 30% working women are above 30 years.
  • 60% working women are 20-30 years
  • 10% working women/ girls are below 20 years.
demographic status of women57
DEMOGRAPHIC STATUS OF WOMEN
  • Some women workers bring their young children, as a helper to earn maximum income in a day.
responsibility of government
RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENT
  • Government is responsible for making policies, inter-provincial coordination, planning, research, quality control, training, exploratory fishing, stock assessment, fisheries management, fleet improvement, data collection and export etc.
responsibility of government59
RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENT
  • But in the case of Women Workers in Fisheries Industry of Pakistan, the Government has not persuaded any Policy or Programme to improve the socio-economic condition of Women Workers of Fisheries Industry.
responsibility of government60
RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENT
  • The Handbook of Fisheries Statistics of Pakistan—the annual publication of Pakistan’s Marine Fisheries Department last published in 1998—for example, has no mention of women, even though it carries a full chapter on the fishermen population
recommendations
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • The only and ever lasting solution to all the problem of Women Workers is the implementation of Labour Laws.
  • Awareness in the women workers about their right guaranted in Labour Law.
recommendations62
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Implementation of labour law could only be made by having a Committee which may comprises of:
  • Local UC Councilors
    • Local Social Personality
    • Labour Inspector of the area
    • Member of NGO
    • Representative of area Police Station
recommendations63
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • It should be clearly brought into the notice of all exporters, Warrah Contractor that violation of Labour Law could be fatal to their business.
  • The hygienic conditions of the Warrahs be improved.
  • Medical facilities be provided in Warrahs and other women working areas.