Plant Growth & Development By: Johnny M. Jessup Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor
Introduction • There are 7 plant processes that effect growth which are…. • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Absorption • Transpiration • Translocation • Reproduction • Osmosis
Photosynthesis • Process by which green plants manufacture food. • The beginning of the food chain for all living things on earth.
Photosynthesis • Carbon dioxide and water are combined in the presence of light to make sugar and oxygen. • The Formula is…. 6CO2 + 6H2O + 672Kcal C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon Dioxide Water Light Glucose Sugar Oxygen
Respiration • The process through which plant leaves, stems, and roots consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. • Plants produce much more oxygen through photosynthesis then they use through respiration.
Absorption • The process by which plant roots take in water, air, & nutrients and conduct them to the stem.
Transpiration • The process by which plants roots lose water from leaves and stems through evaporation.
Translocation • The process by which food and nutrients are moved within a plant from one plant part to another. • Water and minerals move from the roots up to the leaves and food moves from the leaves down to the roots.
Reproduction • The plant process that increases plant numbers, usually from seeds.
Asexual Propagation • Budding • Grafting • Layering • Stem Cuttings • ETC
Osmosis • The process by which minerals enter the plant through cell walls. • The process by which water enters the plant through cell walls.
Photoperiodism • The response of plants to different amounts of light regarding their flowering and reproduction cycles.
Photoperiodism • Short day plants require long nights to flower. • Examples are poinsettia and azalea.
Photoperiodism • Long day plants require short nights to flower. • Examples are African violets and spinach.
Phototropism • The tendency for plants to grow toward a light source
Moisture • 90% of plant tissue is made of mostly water. • Water carries nutrients throughout the plant
Plant Processes • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Absorption • Transpiration • Translocation • Reproduction • Osmosis
Stages of Plant Growth • Juvenile • When the plant first starts to grow from a seed.
Stages of Plant Growth • Vegetative • The second stage of growth that begins after the plant begins photosynthesis and actively grows leaves, stems, and roots prior to flowering
Stages of Plant Growth • Reproductive • When plant produces flowers, seeds, and fruits.
Stages of Plant Growth • Dormant • When plant rests or grows very little if any.
Hardiness Zones • North Carolina • Zones 6 to 8 • Plants are categorized by zones based on the average minimum temperature • Zone 6 • -10 to 0 degrees F • Zone 7 • 0 to 10 degrees F • Charlotte and Raleigh • Zone 8 • 10 to 20 degrees F • Havelock
Plant Cells • Are the basic unit of life. • Nucleus and a mass of protoplasm contained with a plasma membrane.
Nucleus • Location of the plant’s genetic and hereditary make-up.
Protoplasm • The living matter of the cell. • The gel matrix inside the cell.
Plasma Membrane • Surrounds protoplasm and allows for exchange of nutrients and gases into and out of the cell.
Cell Wall • The rigid structure that provides support for the cell and thus the whole plant.
Other Cell Structures • Chloroplasts • Vacuole • Plastids • Mitochondrion
Plant Tissue • A group of cells with similar origin and function. • Classified according to their…. • Origin • Structure • Physiology
Origin & Function • Meristematic • Near the tip of stems and roots where cell division and enlargement occur. • Vascular Cambium • Increase growth in diameter of stems.
Structure • Simple • Usually one type of cell. • Complex • Several types of cells.
Simple Tissues • Epidermal • One-cell thick, outer layer, protects, prevents water loss. • Sclerenchyma • Have thickened cell walls and contain fibers to give strength and support to plant structures.
Complex Tissues • Collenchyma • Have thick cell walls that strengthen and support plant structures. • Parenchyma • Fleshy part of plant that stores water and nutrients.
The Asexual Cycle - Vegetative • Vegetative • Growth and development of buds, roots, leaves, and stems.
The Asexual Cycle - Vegetative • Cell elongation • Stage when cells enlarge. • Cell differentiation • Stage when cells specialize.
The Asexual Cycle - Reproductive • Reproductive or flowering • Plant develops flower buds that will develop into…. • Flowers • Fruits • Seeds
Growth Hormones • Plants produce chemical substances called hormones that inhibit or promote growth. • Common plant hormones are…. • Inhibitors • Cytokinins • Gibberellins • Auxins
STOP Inhibitors • Hasten fruit ripening, inhibit or restrain seed germination and stem elongation.
Cytokinins • Hormones that work with auxins to stimulate cell division.
Gibberellins • Hormones that stimulate cell elongation, premature flowering, and breaking of dormancy.
Auxins • Hormones that speed plant growth by stimulating cell enlargement.
Light • Necessary because of photosynthesis. • Photoperiodism • The response of plants to different amounts of light regarding their flowering and reproduction cycles.