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Presentation of methodologies and instruments to collect data on women’s and men’s unpaid work and household production ************************ From Time Use data to Gender aware modeling OBJECTIVE AND EXPECTED OUTCOME Objective
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Presentation of methodologies and instruments to collect data on women’s and men’s unpaid work and household production
From Time Use data to Gender aware modeling
Beijing Platform For Action has called for developing “suitable statistical means to recognize and make visible the full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the national economy including their contribution in the unremunerated and domestic sectors…” (UN Beijing Declaration, Platform For Action? 1995).
The concept of production boundary in the SNA and the women’s work
The System of National Accounts (SNA) tries to provide a comprehensive and detailed record of the complex economic activities taking place within an economy and of the interaction between the different economic agents, and groups of agents that takes place on markets.
Taking into account the definition of the production boundary, human activities in any society, can be divided in three main sectors:
I. Activities that fall into the SNA (SNA activities) including the market oriented production activities in primary (agriculture), secondary (industry), and tertiary (trade, services) sectors, and some non- market oriented activities such as producing goods for own consumption (subsistence production).
II. Non-market oriented activities, which essentially generate services produced by households without monetary transactions. These activities arefor example:
· Providing unpaid domestic services for own or household members (cleaning, cooking, looking after the children or elder and sick persons…)
· Providing community services and help to other households, fall outside the SNA production boundary, but within the general production boundary
III. Personal activities, which are not considered as production activities such as sleeping, eating, washing and dressing oneself and all leisure activities.
All these three types of human activities contribute to human well being as they provide goods and services of different kind for human consumption.
A way to highlight women’s real contribution to the economy is to measure the time spent by women on unpaid work to produce those goods and services
The Time-Use Survey (TUS) is currently the most appropriate tool to assess the paid (market work) and the unpaid work (non-market work), both of women and men and to estimate the contribution of this invisible unpaid work to human welfare, and to the economy.
This women’s work, which is important for human well-being, is for a larger part unpaid and not considered in national accounting system. The conclusion of this report was that “much of women’s work remains unrecognized and unvalued. This has an impact on the status of women in society, their opportunities in public life and the gender blindness of development policy” (United Nations, 1995).
Then starts a growing international movement promoting the inclusion of unpaid work in the National Accounting System, with a special focus on the importance of Time-Use surveys for this purpose.
Many countries around the world including several African countries (South Africa, Nigeria, Benin, Morocco, Madagascar? Tanzalia and Tunisia...) have conducted Time-Use surveys and then came the need to harmonize the methodology of how to conduct the Time-Use surveys.
Basically Time-Use survey will play an essential role to improve the current vision of the economy and of the statistical system and three reasons can explain this:
Ø Time-Use survey helps to show a more complete presentation of the economy and society by providing vital information on those areas which are presently invisible in national accounts;
Time-use statistics are quantitative summary of how women/girls and men/boys spend or allocate their time over a day, a week, and across seasons over a year.
Time-Use surveys are designed to account for the nature, duration and location of all activities, which are carried out by the population during a reference period
The sample design refers to the choice of the population covered by the survey. The survey sample should be representative to the population of the country.
The primary activity
The secondary activities
The time of activity
The activity sequence
The activity duration
The activity location
The social contacts
To whom the activity is performed
To collect this information, the time diary approach uses several methods:Self completed diaryThe respondents are asked to fill in a diary, Face-to-face or telephone interviewThe respondents’ daily activities are observed and recorded by a third party, the interviewer.Selection of diary days and coverage of the yearThe general rule is that the more diary days for data collection, the better it will be.
HOW TO COLLECT TIME USE STATISTICS?
The activity classification system
In a time-Use survey, the activity is a basic unit of analysis, thus the nomenclature and classification of activities will be an important part of the planning, collection and analysis of Time-use data. The data can be easily compared between countries, if only there’s a standard system of activity classification, which must cover all aspects of human activity.
NTA are a set of estimates of our total income and expenditures of time, similar to the estimates of national income and expenditure, which account for our market transactions in the monetary sector.
NTA provide measures , on a continuous and up-to-date basis, of how households allocate time between paid work, unpaid work and leisure.
They enable to capture and better understand the total economy, which includes not only the market production from the formal/monetary sector but also non-market production from the informal and household sectors.
They enable a complete measurement of the economic activities: non-market production by households is at least as large as paid work. It is estimated that the work input for the total economy is twice as large as what is currently measured as work.
NSA are methods by which the central framework of the SNA is expanded to increase the analytical capacity of the system without overburdening or disrupting it.
They enable an analysis of the trade-off between household production and market production, and the impact of one on the other.
They also facilitasse comparability of measures of extended production within a country at different points in time, enabling a long-term perspective analysis of growth, productivity, and distribution and capital formation.
THE OUTPUT-BASED METHOD
In this method, household production is valued on the basis of the output.
THE INPUT-BASED METHOD
Most time-use studies use the Input-based methods. It involves the valuation of unpaid work based on wage.
Such valuation is based on time spent in the various activities multiplied by the corresponding salaries.
THE THREE APPROACHES TO THE INPUT-BASED METHOD
The"core" model is adapted from the “Exter-Plus” archetype. It incorporates the principal characteristics of most of the models used in income distribution and poverty analysis of macroeconomic policies.
simulation involves the elimination of all import tariffs where government revenue is maintained constant through an endogenous uniform increase in direct income taxes.
The gender-aware SAM was able to demonstrate numerically that women’s contribution in non-market production in South Africa is almost double that of men and that women have 30-50% less time for personal care and the leisure than men at the household level.
Elimination of import tariffs in South Africa would reduce real wages for women by more than double that of the male counter parts.
All these strong results would go unnoticed if the SAM and the model were not sex disaggregated
the gender decomposition of labor, combined with the hypothesis of imperfect substitution between male and female labor, allows to discover that trade liberalization has a much more positive effect on male real wage rates than on female real wage rates