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The Age of Industrialization 1. The Rise of Heavy Industry 2. Railroading 3. Invention and Technology 4. The “Robber Barons” 5. Horatio Alger and the Myth of the Self-Made Man 6. 19th Century Women Pittsburgh at night Reasons for the rise of heavy industry

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the age of industrialization
The Age of Industrialization
  • 1. The Rise of Heavy Industry
  • 2. Railroading
  • 3. Invention and Technology
  • 4. The “Robber Barons”
  • 5. Horatio Alger and the Myth of the Self-Made Man
  • 6. 19th Century Women
reasons for the rise of heavy industry4
Reasons for the rise of heavy industry
  • 1. New Articles of Production
reasons for the rise of heavy industry5
Reasons for the rise of heavy industry
  • 1. New Articles of Production
  • 2. New Purchasers of Material
reasons for the rise of heavy industry6
Reasons for the rise of heavy industry
  • 1. New Articles of Production
  • 2. New Purchasers of Material
  • 3. Technology
reasons for the rise of heavy industry7
Reasons for the rise of heavy industry
  • 1. New Articles of Production
  • 2. New Purchasers of Material
  • 3. Technology
  • 4. New methods of Organization
reasons for the rise of heavy industry8
Reasons for the rise of heavy industry
  • 1. New Articles of Production
  • 2. New Purchasers of Material
  • 3. Technology
  • 4. New methods of Organization
  • 5. New Sources of Power
reasons for the rise of heavy industry9
Reasons for the rise of heavy industry
  • 1. New Articles of Production
  • 2. New Purchasers of Material
  • 3. Technology
  • 4. New methods of Organization
  • 5. New Sources of Power
  • 6. Transportation improvements
reasons for the rise of heavy industry10
Reasons for the rise of heavy industry
  • 1. New Articles of Production
  • 2. New Purchasers of Material
  • 3. Technology
  • 4. New methods of Organization
  • 5. New Sources of Power
  • 6. Transportation improvements
  • 7. Improved Communications
the transcontinental railroad 186913
The Transcontinental Railroad1869
  • Union Pacific- East to West
the transcontinental railroad 186914
The Transcontinental Railroad1869
  • Union Pacific- East to West
  • Central Pacific- (Collis Huntington) West to East. Much slower. Why?
the transcontinental railroad 186915
The Transcontinental Railroad1869
  • Union Pacific- East to West
  • Central Pacific- (Collis Huntington) West to East. Much slower. Why?
  • Had to go through Rocky Mountains!
the transcontinental railroad 186916
The Transcontinental Railroad1869
  • Union Pacific- East to West
  • Central Pacific- (Collis Huntington) West to East. Much slower. Why?
  • Had to go through Rocky Mountains!
  • Met at Prometory Point, Utah, May 1869
andrew carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
  • Started off as a poor immigrant from Scotland.
andrew carnegie22
Andrew Carnegie
  • Started off as a poor immigrant from Scotland.
  • Worked in a textile mill
andrew carnegie23
Andrew Carnegie
  • Started off as a poor immigrant from Scotland.
  • Worked in a textile mill
  • Started as secretary to RR Superintendent and later became superintendent himself.
andrew carnegie24
Andrew Carnegie
  • Started off as a poor immigrant from Scotland.
  • Worked in a textile mill
  • Started as secretary to RR Superintendent and later became superintendent himself.
  • Moved into steel industry
andrew carnegie25
Andrew Carnegie
  • Started off as a poor immigrant from Scotland.
  • Worked in a textile mill
  • Started as secretary to RR Superintendent and later became superintendent himself.
  • Moved into steel industry
  • First to use the “Bessemer Process”
carnegie and philanthropy
Carnegie and Philanthropy
  • The Gospel of Wealth (1889)
carnegie and philanthropy27
Carnegie and Philanthropy
  • The Gospel of Wealth (1889)
  • Influenced by Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism
carnegie and philanthropy28
Carnegie and Philanthropy
  • The Gospel of Wealth (1889)
  • Influenced by Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism
  • Concerned about proper uses of wealth
carnegie and philanthropy29
Carnegie and Philanthropy
  • The Gospel of Wealth (1889)
  • Influenced by Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism
  • Concerned about proper uses of wealth
  • Best method is to distribute it while alive!
horatio alger
Horatio Alger
  • Wrote “rags to riches” novels about young men who persevered and rose up from poverty.
industrial heirarchy33
Industrial Heirarchy
  • Native -Born White Protestant males
industrial heirarchy34
Industrial Heirarchy
  • Native -Born White Protestant males
  • Skilled Northern European Immigrants
industrial heirarchy35
Industrial Heirarchy
  • Native -Born White Protestant males
  • Skilled Northern European Immigrants
  • New Immigrants from Southern and Central Europe with no skills
industrial heirarchy36
Industrial Heirarchy
  • Native -Born White Protestant males
  • Skilled Northern European Immigrants
  • New Immigrants from Southern and Central Europe with no skills
  • Women in general
industrial heirarchy37
Industrial Heirarchy
  • Native -Born White Protestant males
  • Skilled Northern European Immigrants
  • New Immigrants from Southern and Central Europe with no skills
  • Women in general
  • African-Americans
why labor unions failed to succeed43
Why Labor Unions failed to succeed
  • Language barrier
  • Temporary nature of the work
why labor unions failed to succeed44
Why Labor Unions failed to succeed
  • Language barrier
  • Temporary nature of the work
  • No “safety net.”
why labor unions failed to succeed45
Why Labor Unions failed to succeed
  • Language barrier
  • Temporary nature of the work
  • No “safety net.”
  • Management reluctance to recognize.
why labor unions failed to succeed46
Why Labor Unions failed to succeed
  • Language barrier
  • Temporary nature of the work
  • No “safety net.”
  • Management reluctance to recognize.
  • Government siding with management.
early labor unions
Early Labor Unions
  • Knights of Labor- Terrence Powderly
  • Cooperative labor where workers would own the means of production.
  • 8 hour work day
  • Open to all producers- regardless of gender, color, or skill level.
early labor unions48
Early Labor Unions
  • American Federation of Labor- Samuel Gompers
  • Skilled laborers only (craft unions)
  • Interested in “bread and butter” issues like shorter hours, better pay.
  • Women were excluded.
early labor unions49
Early Labor Unions
  • International Lady Garment Workers Union (ILGWU)- first labor union exclusively for female workers.
  • However, most leadership positions were taken by males.
why labor unions failed51
Why Labor Unions Failed
  • Management desire to kill unions.
why labor unions failed52
Why Labor Unions Failed
  • Management desire to kill unions.
  • Violence against union membership.
why labor unions failed53
Why Labor Unions Failed
  • Management desire to kill unions.
  • Violence against union membership.
  • Use of strike-breakers (scabs).
why labor unions failed54
Why Labor Unions Failed
  • Management desire to kill unions.
  • Violence against union membership.
  • Use of strike-breakers (scabs).
  • Cultural and language barriers
why labor unions failed55
Why Labor Unions Failed
  • Management desire to kill unions.
  • Violence against union membership.
  • Use of strike-breakers (scabs).
  • Cultural and language barriers
  • Blacklisting
why labor unions failed56
Why Labor Unions Failed
  • Management desire to kill unions.
  • Violence against union membership.
  • Use of strike-breakers (scabs).
  • Cultural and language barriers
  • Blacklisting
  • Military and Police action against unions.