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Operant (Instrumental) Learning. Lecture 4. What’s going to happen next?. If we know…we can be prepared Increases our chances for success Predicting important events critical for survival food & water sex danger ~. Associative Learning. Events become associated linked Association via

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what s going to happen next
What’s going to happen next?
  • If we know…we can be prepared
    • Increases our chances for success
  • Predicting important events critical for survival
    • food & water
    • sex
    • danger ~
associative learning
Associative Learning
  • Events become associated
    • linked
  • Association via
    • Respondent Learning

(AKA: Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning)

      • involuntary behavior
    • Operant Learning

(AKA: Instrumental)

      • motivated behavior ~
motivated behavior
Motivated Behavior
  • Not all behavior reflexive
    • Involuntary
    • Respondent / Elicited
    • Triggered by external events
  • Motivated behavior
    • Voluntary
    • Operant / Emitted
    • Attempt to change environment ~
motivated behavior5
Motivated Behavior
  • Behavior controlled by past experiences
  • Consequences of past behavior important
    • NOT goals or intent
  • Mechanical process
    • conscious mental effort NOT required
    • but can facilitate ~
response selection
Response Selection
  • Analogous to natural selection
    • Adaptive behaviors “survive”
  • Hedonism
    • Seek pleasure
    • Avoid pain
  • Benefits survival and well-being ~
slide7

+

Environmental

Consequences

Changes in Behavior

Response

Variation

Optimal response will be strongest

learning new behaviors
Learning New Behaviors
  • How is behavior established (acquired)?
    • familiar responses in new situations
    • combine familiar responses in new ways
  • Can produce complex behaviors
    • Playing piano, repairing car, etc., etc., etc.~
e l thorndike
E. L. Thorndike
  • Animal learning
    • Trial & error learning
    • Puzzle box
  • Instrumental learning
    • Behavior instrumental in producing a specific outcome
  • Environment changes organism ~
thorndike s laws
Thorndike’s Laws

*Law of Effect

*Law of Readiness

Law of Exercise

thorndike s law of effect
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
  • Behavior leads to…
  • Satisfying outcome  behavior repeated
    • Strengthened
    • Will act to approach or maintain
  • Annoying outcome  NOT repeated
    • Weakened
    • Will act to avoid or discontinue ~
satisfying for whom
Satisfying for Whom?
  • Neurons
    • Neural connections
    • b/n sensory events & behavioral responses
    • Strengthened or weakened
  • Not necessarily for the individual
    • Maladaptive behaviors can be strengthened
    • i.e., drug abuse ~
law of readiness
Law of Readiness
  • Strengthening requires motivation
    • hunger, thirst, etc.
  • Physiological state important
    • also cognitive state
  • Role of nervous system
    • Organization
    • State
      • strength of connection ~
law of readiness14
Law of Readiness
  • When you are ready to engage in a behavior
    • Doing it is satisfying
    • Not doing it is annoying
  • When you are not ready to do something
    • Being forced to act is annoying ~
controlled by consequences
Controlled by Consequences
  • Situational cues important
    • Outcome of behavior may differ
    • e.g, stopping at a traffic light
  • Antecedents = Cues
    • Signals situation
    • Likely outcome ~
abcs of behavior
ABCs of Behavior
  • Antecedents
    • Signals likely outcome
  • Behavior
    • Response attempting to produce adaptive outcome
  • Consequences
    • Outcome of behavior
    • Strengthens or weakens behavior ~
operant instrumental notation

:

SD

B

SR

Antecedent

(Signal)

Consequence(Outcome)

Behavior(Response)

Operant/Instrumental Notation

B

C

A

operant instrumental notation18
Operant/Instrumental Notation
  • SR (or S*)
    • biologically important stimulus
    • Consequence of behavior
  • B (or R)
    • Response or behavior
    • Acts on environment
  • B-SR contingency
    • Response  SR ~
operant instrumental notation19

:

SD

B

SR

Operant/Instrumental Notation
  • Discriminative stimulus
  • SD (or S+)
    • Cue that signals SR available
  • SΔ (or S-)
    • signals SR not available ~
consequences of behavior
Consequences of Behavior
  • Classes of stimuli
    • Appetitive
    • Aversive
  • Consequence
    • SR occurs
      • Positive contingency
    • SR prevented/ terminated
      • negative contingency ~
strengthening behavior
Strengthening behavior
  • Reinforcement
    • increases responding
    • strengthens a response
  • Reinforcers: biologically important
    • SR
  • 2 types of reinforcement ~
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning

Contingency

positive

negative

terminate

or prevent

occurs

Positive

RFT

appetitive

SR

Negative

RFT

aversive

reinforcement
Reinforcement
  • Depends on type of stimulus & outcome
  • Positive RFT
    • positive contingency appetitive SR
    • Depends on certain response
    • strengthens behavior ~
reinforcement24
Reinforcement
  • Negative RFT
    • negative contingency with SR
  • avoidance or termination of aversive SR
    • avoidance = preventing
    • escape = termination
  • NOT occurrence of aversive SR
  • Reinforcement strengthens behavior ~
punishment
Punishment
  • Weakens behavior
    • NOT like negative reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
    • B  aversive SR
    • positive contingency
  • Negative punishment
    • B  terminates appetitive SR
    • or prevents
    • aka omission training ~
operant conditioning26
Operant Conditioning

Contingency

positive

negative

terminate

or prevent

occurs

Negative Punishment

Positive

RFT

appetitive

SR

Negative

RFT

PositivePunishment

aversive

extinction of reinforced behavior
Extinction of Reinforced Behavior

Behavior changes relatively permanent

Modifiable if situation changes

B no longer followed by important event

SD : B  No SR

 B

NOT unlearning, forgetting

Association still intact

Spontaneous recovery, disinhibition, etc. ~