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Neuropsychological Diseases. Tumors, toxins, and CVAs Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy) Parkinson’s Disease Huntington’s Disease Multiple Sclerosis Alzheimer’s Disease Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease. Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy).

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neuropsychological diseases

Neuropsychological Diseases

Tumors, toxins, and CVAs

Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)

Parkinson’s Disease

Huntington’s Disease

Multiple Sclerosis

Alzheimer’s Disease

Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease

seizure disorders epilepsy
Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)
  • Seizures may be from trauma, illness, or drugs. These are usually reversible.
  • Chronic seizure patterns generated by brain dysfunction are called epilepsy.
symptoms of epilepsy
Symptoms of epilepsy
  • Convulsions:
    • Tremors or clonus
    • Rigidity or tonus
    • Loss of balance and consciousness
  • High-amplitude EEG spikes
  • Epileptic auras
    • Provide clues to the location of the focus
    • Provide warning of an impending seizure
partial seizures
Partial seizures
  • Affect only part of the brain at a time
  • May be simple or complex
    • Simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures: Spreading sensory or motor or combined effects
    • Complex partial seizures or temporal lobe epilepsy begin with an aura and lead to a psychomotor attack: automatisms with consciousness but no recollection. Most common variety: 50% of all cases.
generalized seizures
Generalized seizures
  • Involve the entire brain, either by gradual building or simultaneously, perhaps from a focus in the thalamus.
  • Grand mal seizures
    • Tonic-clonic convulsion
    • Loss of consciousness and balance
    • Hypoxia from excessive excitatory amino acids
generalized seizures6
Generalized seizures
  • Petit mal or absence seizures
    • 3-per-second spike-and-wave EEG pattern

1 second

Common in children, often end at puberty: Labelled

daydreamers and space cadets.

parkinson s disease
Parkinson’s disease
  • Multiple causes: genetic error, infection, stroke, trauma, neurotoxins, idiopathic
  • Damage to substantia nigra in midbrain
    • Normally dampens the responsiveness of the caudate nucleus of the striatum of basal ganglia
    • Symptoms include resting tremor, difficulty starting or stopping movement, flattened facial expression or emotion. Intellect is intact.
parkinson s disease8
Parkinson’s disease
  • Treatment:
    • L-DOPA (levorotatory dihydroxyphenylalanine)
    • Deprenyl (selegeline, Eldepryl)
      • Dose-dependent MAO-B Inhibitor
      • May inhibit DA uptake at the synapse
      • Metabolites include amphetamine and methamphetamine, which inhibit uptake and increase release of DA, NE, and 5-HT
      • Discovered through the MPTP episode.
huntington s disease
Huntington’s disease
  • Caused by a single dominant gene
  • Progresses from fidgety motor behavior to chorea to dementia to death
  • Symptoms start after age 40, last 15 years
  • No cure, but a test is available.
multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
  • Scarred hardening (sclerosis) of myelin
  • Hypothesized cause: A slow-acting infection of childhood leading to autoimmune reaction against myelin, in genetically susceptible people
  • Disrupts sensation, especially vision and touch
  • Produces weakness, tremor, ataxia, and loss of bladder control
alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer’s disease
  • A progressive dementia associated with advancing age, it affects about 10% of people over age 85.
  • Behavioral symptoms are similar in several of the dementias: Alzheimer’s diagnoses are confirmed post-mortem by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques
  • There is significant loss of neurons
alzheimer s disease12
Alzheimer’s disease
  • Damage is greatest in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, all in the medial temporal lobe and all involved in memory; and in the temporal, parietal, and prefrontal cortex, all involved in complex thought.
  • Genetic component on chromosome 21, 14, or 19 produces 50% risk in immediate family members who live to be 80 - 100.
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies creutzfeld jakob disease and mad cow disease
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies: Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease and “Mad Cow Disease”
  • A viral infection, CJD comes in two forms:
  • Variant CJD has been linked with mad cow disease which has claimed a number of lives in the United Kingdom.
  • The other strain, typical CJD, has a 30-year incubation period, so normally occurs in older people.