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N-3 Omega-The Miracles of Today’s Nutrition. What about future.?

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  1. N-3 Omega-The Miracles of Today’s Nutrition. What about future.? Dr. Ugur Gogus Middle East Technical University Vocational School of Higher Education Tel: +903122103653 Fax:+903122101239 gugur@metu.edu.tr

  2. The very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids C18, C20, C22 Health

  3. ω15 12 9 COOH Alpha-linolenic acid (omega -3) 12 9 COOH Linoleic acid (omega-6) Arachidonic acid 14 the highest double bond locant 20 total C # 20-14:6(ω6) Oleic acid 18- 9: 9(ω9) ω

  4. ω15 12 9 COOH Alpha-linolenic acid (omega -3) 12 9 COOH Linoleic acid (omega-6) Prostaglandins blood vessels blood circulation body functions ω

  5. n-6 omega PUFAs Linoleic acid(LA) Arachidonic acid(AA) PGE2; TXA2 Leukotriene B4IL-2 IL-6 TNF IL-1 neutrophil recruitment immunosuppressive free oxygen radicals vascular permeability platelet aggregation odema thrombogenesis and inflammation

  6. EFA cholesterol cytochrome P450 Brain AA(n-6) steroid hormone LN(n-3) Dihomo α-LN(n-3) Sugar transfer CTH hormone LA(n-6) reduce PGE2; LTB4 IL-2 IL-6 TNF TXA2 IL-1 produce awakening neutrophil rec. Vasc.perm, platelet agg, odema 1 series eicosanoids PGE3 Inflammation PGE1 PGD2 PGI3 Sleep promoter reduce EPA(C20:5)&DHA(C22:6) TXA3 + LTB5

  7. AA% AA/LN conversion rate inflammation dihomo α linolenic acid (LN)%

  8. TNF n-3 omega restorationT-suppressor cell amount antiinflammatory effect eczema psoriasis rheumatoid arthritis IBD Chron’s disease

  9. Stenson et al.(1992)/Hawthorne et al.(1992) n-3 Omega; 5.4-4.5g Colon mucosa post operative healing amount ??? oxidation ??? Vit E

  10. AA(n-6) LA(n-6) PGE2 IL-1 LTB4 TNF OFR Hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis

  11. AA(n-6) LA(n-6) PGE2 IL-1LTB4TNF OFRHypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis

  12. n-3 omega oxidation(7.7 g/daily) Oxidation of red blood cells LDL oxidation (Nardini, 1995) No difference(Brude et al. 1997) Are n-3 omega fatty acids oxidants or antioxidants?

  13. Se, carotenoid Cancer Dietary fat Obesity Na Hypertension alcohol Stroke n-3 omega CHD

  14. n-3 omega(5,4 g/day) PGE2 & thromboxanes thrombosis,fibrilation & clot formation CH amount HDL

  15. Schacky et al(1999) 2 year follow up n-3 omega 3 g/70 Kg/7day LDL VLDL (Lu, Windsor and Harris, 1999) CH VLDL HDL (Rader 2003; Barbeau et al. 1997; Allman et al. 2002; Liu, Wallin & Saldeen, 2001) Protein kinase C NO (Schoene 2001; El-seweidy et al. 2002)

  16. n-3 omegacreatin phosphokinaseMI Saturated fat(coconut) MI Nageswari,Banerjee & Menon 1999)

  17. prevention in post myocardial infarction n-3 omega ischemia-induced aryhtmias <3 g/day EPA&DHA GRAS Lee and Lip(2003) Leaf et al(2003)

  18. n-6 omega & n-3 omega PCB Linoleic acid endothelial cell wall Slim et al.(2001)

  19. n-3 omega NADPH oxidase Cellular protection Immun system defense

  20. Diabetes Mellitus plasma glucose fructosamine triglyseride LDL HDL NO IL-1 & TNF n-3 omega LDL IL-1 & TNF serum glucose? (El-seweidy et al.2002; Gavia et al. 2003)

  21. n-3 omega Platelet aggregation bile flow kidney (Levy & Herzberg 1996)

  22. EPA TNF weight gain (Fish oil & soy bean; Fish oil) tumorigenesis Colorectal cancer flaxseed Pancreas cancer fish oil soy oil olive oil PGE2 canola oil (Gavia et al. 2003; Gogos et al. 1998; Barber et al. 1999: Gavia et al. 2003; Troyer& fernandes, 1996; Denmark-Wahnefried et al. 1998)

  23. Phospholipids + PGE2 • Depression • Stress • Postpartum depression • Alzheimer • Parkinson • MS • Schizophrenia • (Horrobin et al. 2002; Maes et al. 1993; Song et al. 1998;Hibbeln, 1998; Edwars et al. 1998; Peet et al. 1998; Furukawa et al. 2002; Horribin et al. 2001)

  24. Omega 6 / Omega 3 • 10/1 • 15/1 16.7/1 • 2.5/1 colorectal cancer • 4/1 no effect • 2-3/1 rheumatoid arthritis • 5/1 asthma • (Simopoulos AP, 2002)

  25. Flax oil 9% Sat. Fat 20% Mono Fat 17% Omega-6 54% Omega-3 Grapeseed oil 10% Sat. Fat 17% Mono. Fat 73% Omega-6 Trace Omega-3 Pumpkin Oil 9% Sat. Fat 34% Mono. Fat 42% Omega-6 15% Omega-3 Canola Oil 6% Sat. Fat 58% Mono. Fat 26% Omega-6 10% Omega-3Safflower Oil 9% Sat. Fat 13% Mono. Fat 78% Omega-6 Trace% Omega-3Sunflower Oil 11% Sat. Fat 20% Mono. Fat 69% Omega-6 -0% Omega-3Sesame Oil 15% Sat. Fat 46% Mono. Fat 41% Omega-6 0% Omega-3Corn Oil 13% Sat. Fat 25% Mono. Fat 61% Omega-6 1% Omega-3 • Olive Oil 14% Sat. Fat 77% Mono. Fat 8% Omega-6 1% Omega-3 • Soybean Oil 15% Sat. Fat 24% Mono. Fat 54% Omega-6 7% Omega-3 • Walnut Oil 16% Sat. Fat 28% Mono. Fat 51% Omega-6 5% Omega-3Peanut Oil 18% Sat. Fat 48% Mono. Fat 34% Omega-6 0% Omega-3Lard 41% Sat. Fat 47% Mono. Fat 11% Omega-6 1% Omega-3Chicken Fat 31% Sat. Fat 47% Mono. Fat 21% Omega-6 1% Omega-3Beef Fat 52% Sat. Fat 44% Mono. Fat 3% Omega-6 1% Omega-3Butterfat 66% Sat. Fat 30% Mono. Fat 2% Omega-6 2% Omega-3Coconut Oil 92% Sat. Fat 6% Mono. Fat 2% Omega-6 0% Omega-3Palm Oil 51% Sat. Fat 39% Mono. Fat 10% Omega-6 0% Omega-3

  26. α linolenic acid Fat content/α linolenic acid Fat content(g/100g) / α-linolenic acid(g/100g) : Butter 83.2 1.20 69.3 Lard 100.0 0.98 102.04 Linseed oil 100.0 54.2 1.84 Soybean oil 100.0 7.70 12.98 Rapseed oil 100.0 9.15 10.93 Walnut oil 100.0 13.5 7.40 Olive oil 100.0 0.86 625 Vegetable oil 80.0 2.40 33.3 Almonds 54.1 0.26 208.07 Hazelnut 61.6 0.15 410.6 Walnuts 62.5 6.80 9.19 Kale 0.90 0.35 2.57 Lettuce 0.22 0.07 3.14 Parsley 0.36 0.12 3.00 Potato 0.11 0.02 5.5 Cauliflower 0.18 0.10 1.8 Spinach 0.30 0.13 2.31 White cabbage 0.20 0.09 2.22 Wheat bran 4.65 0.16 29.06

  27. Fat content EPA(g/100g) DHA(g/100g) fat content/EPA(g/100g)+DHA(g/100g) fat content(g/100g) EPA+DHA(g/100g) fat content/EPA+DHA(g/100g) Eel 24.5 0.83 29.51 Hering 17.8 2.72 6.54 Sprat 16.6 3.23 5.14 Tuna 15.5 3.37 4.60 Salmon 13.6 2.86 4.76 Mackerel 11.9 1.75 6.8 Carp 4.8 0.30 16 Sardine 4.5 1.39 3.24* Swordfish 4.4 1.79 2.45* Trout 2.7 0.59 4.58 Halibut 1.7 0.51 3.33* Cod 0.6 0.18 3.33* Haddock 0.6 0.16 3.75* Lobster 1.9 0.20 9.5 Shrimp 1.4 0.30 4.66 Mussels 1.4 0.15 9.33 Anchovy 2.3 0.50 4.60 Sardine 13.9 2.44 5.70

  28. Which fish for high Omega 3 Consumer education & correct information

  29. Which tablet & nutrition for consumer health??? Cinnamon Garlic Parsley Ginkgo bloba Tebocan Cumadin Aspirin/coraspirin Ginger Omega 3

  30. Infant nutrition/upto day 42 n-3 omega PUFAs pyschomotor + birthweight + N balance breast milk supl. with omega 3 and its effect??? (Woltil et al. 1999;Hayashi et al. 1999; Morley. 1998)

  31. Omega & meat industry Peroxide poultry fed with 8-12% fish meal (O’Keefe, Proudfoot & Ackman, 1995) No change lamb oxidative stress (Ponnampalam et al, 2001) Oxidative or nonoxidant or no change for meat products, which?? Enrichment of meat products with n-3 Ω(Raes, Smet & Demeyer, 2003) What about serum CH & n-3Ω levels followed by consumption.??

  32. No study on bone health!!! Only; lenght growth rats, fed with n-3Ω vertebral peak load (Sirois, Cheung & Ward, 2003)

  33. Application points of n-3 Ω Aerospace industry Cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis, athrial fibrilosis, thrombose & emboly Cancer (esp in gastrointestinal org.) Diabetes type 2 Depression&stress Inflammation; crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, MS, chronic glomerular disease, erythematıosus, eczema, psoriasis, IBD) Infant nutrition Pre/post operative periods in surgery Alzheimer

  34. Questions; 1 What amount DHA&EPA supl. for Which DHA&EPA metabolic serum levels ? • Initial n-3/n-6 omega serum levels in the patient • The DHA/EPA amount in supplementation(from food or tablet)

  35. Most accepted recommend?(by FAO/WHO)(Trautwein 2001) • 5-10:1(n-6/n-3) • 10/1 no effect • 15/1 16.7/1 • 2.5/1 colorectal cancer • 4/1 no effect • 2-3/1 rheumatoid arthritis • 5/1 asthma • (Simopoulos AP, 2002)

  36. Missing application points; • Bone&skleton health • Consumer education and correct dose • Oxidation or antioxidation capacity • Meat hygine and nutrition • Sport industry • Cosmetic industry

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