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N-3 Omega-The Miracles of Today’s Nutrition. What about future.? . Dr. Ugur Gogus Middle East Technical University Vocational School of Higher Education Tel: +903122103653 Fax:+903122101239 gugur@metu.edu.tr.

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n 3 omega the miracles of today s nutrition what about future
N-3 Omega-The Miracles of Today’s Nutrition. What about future.?

Dr. Ugur Gogus

Middle East Technical University

Vocational School of Higher Education

Tel: +903122103653

Fax:+903122101239

gugur@metu.edu.tr

15 12 9 cooh
ω15 12 9 COOH

Alpha-linolenic acid (omega -3)

12 9 COOH

Linoleic acid (omega-6)

Arachidonic acid 14 the highest double bond locant

20 total C #

20-14:6(ω6)

Oleic acid 18- 9: 9(ω9)

ω

15 12 9 cooh4
ω15 12 9 COOH

Alpha-linolenic acid (omega -3)

12 9 COOH

Linoleic acid (omega-6)

Prostaglandins blood vessels blood circulation

body functions

ω

slide5
n-6 omega PUFAs

Linoleic acid(LA) Arachidonic acid(AA)

PGE2; TXA2 Leukotriene B4IL-2 IL-6 TNF IL-1

neutrophil

recruitment immunosuppressive

free oxygen radicals

vascular permeability

platelet aggregation

odema

thrombogenesis and inflammation

slide6
EFA cholesterol cytochrome P450 Brain

AA(n-6) steroid hormone

LN(n-3)

Dihomo α-LN(n-3) Sugar transfer

CTH hormone

LA(n-6)

reduce

PGE2; LTB4 IL-2 IL-6 TNF TXA2 IL-1

produce awakening neutrophil rec. Vasc.perm, platelet agg, odema

1 series eicosanoids PGE3 Inflammation

PGE1 PGD2

PGI3

Sleep promoter

reduce

EPA(C20:5)&DHA(C22:6)

TXA3 + LTB5

slide7
AA%

AA/LN

conversion rate

inflammation

dihomo α linolenic acid (LN)%

slide8
TNF

n-3 omega restorationT-suppressor cell amount

antiinflammatory effect

eczema

psoriasis

rheumatoid arthritis

IBD

Chron’s disease

slide9
Stenson et al.(1992)/Hawthorne et al.(1992) n-3 Omega; 5.4-4.5g

Colon mucosa

post operative healing

amount ???

oxidation ???

Vit E

slide10
AA(n-6) LA(n-6)

PGE2

IL-1 LTB4 TNF

OFR Hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis

aa n 6 la n 6
AA(n-6) LA(n-6)

PGE2

IL-1LTB4TNF

OFRHypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis

slide12
n-3 omega oxidation(7.7 g/daily)

Oxidation of red blood cells

LDL oxidation (Nardini, 1995)

No difference(Brude et al. 1997)

Are n-3 omega fatty acids oxidants or antioxidants?

slide13
Se, carotenoid Cancer

Dietary fat Obesity

Na Hypertension

alcohol Stroke

n-3 omega CHD

slide14
n-3 omega(5,4 g/day) PGE2 & thromboxanes

thrombosis,fibrilation & clot formation

CH amount

HDL

slide15
Schacky et al(1999) 2 year follow up

n-3 omega 3 g/70 Kg/7day

LDL VLDL

(Lu, Windsor and Harris, 1999)

CH VLDL HDL (Rader 2003; Barbeau et al. 1997; Allman et al. 2002; Liu, Wallin & Saldeen, 2001)

Protein kinase C NO (Schoene 2001; El-seweidy et al. 2002)

slide16
n-3 omegacreatin phosphokinaseMI

Saturated fat(coconut) MI

Nageswari,Banerjee & Menon 1999)

slide17
prevention in post myocardial infarction

n-3 omega

ischemia-induced aryhtmias

<3 g/day EPA&DHA GRAS

Lee and Lip(2003)

Leaf et al(2003)

slide18
n-6 omega & n-3 omega

PCB

Linoleic acid

endothelial cell wall

Slim et al.(2001)

slide19
n-3 omega NADPH oxidase

Cellular protection

Immun system defense

slide20
Diabetes Mellitus plasma glucose

fructosamine

triglyseride

LDL

HDL

NO

IL-1 & TNF

n-3 omega LDL

IL-1 & TNF

serum glucose?

(El-seweidy et al.2002; Gavia et al. 2003)

slide21
n-3 omega

Platelet aggregation

bile flow

kidney

(Levy & Herzberg 1996)

slide22
EPA TNF

weight gain (Fish oil & soy bean; Fish oil)

tumorigenesis

Colorectal cancer flaxseed

Pancreas cancer fish oil

soy oil

olive oil

PGE2 canola oil

(Gavia et al. 2003; Gogos et al. 1998; Barber et al. 1999: Gavia et al. 2003; Troyer& fernandes, 1996; Denmark-Wahnefried et al. 1998)

phospholipids pge 2
Phospholipids + PGE2
  • Depression
  • Stress
  • Postpartum depression
  • Alzheimer
  • Parkinson
  • MS
  • Schizophrenia
        • (Horrobin et al. 2002; Maes et al. 1993; Song et al. 1998;Hibbeln, 1998; Edwars et al. 1998; Peet et al. 1998; Furukawa et al. 2002; Horribin et al. 2001)
omega 6 omega 3
Omega 6 / Omega 3
  • 10/1
  • 15/1 16.7/1
  • 2.5/1 colorectal cancer
  • 4/1 no effect
  • 2-3/1 rheumatoid arthritis
  • 5/1 asthma
      • (Simopoulos AP, 2002)
slide25
Flax oil 9% Sat. Fat 20% Mono Fat 17% Omega-6 54% Omega-3

Grapeseed oil 10% Sat. Fat 17% Mono. Fat 73% Omega-6 Trace Omega-3

Pumpkin Oil 9% Sat. Fat 34% Mono. Fat 42% Omega-6 15% Omega-3

Canola Oil 6% Sat. Fat 58% Mono. Fat 26% Omega-6 10% Omega-3Safflower Oil 9% Sat. Fat 13% Mono. Fat 78% Omega-6 Trace% Omega-3Sunflower Oil 11% Sat. Fat 20% Mono. Fat 69% Omega-6 -0% Omega-3Sesame Oil 15% Sat. Fat 46% Mono. Fat 41% Omega-6 0% Omega-3Corn Oil 13% Sat. Fat 25% Mono. Fat 61% Omega-6 1% Omega-3

  • Olive Oil 14% Sat. Fat 77% Mono. Fat 8% Omega-6 1% Omega-3
  • Soybean Oil 15% Sat. Fat 24% Mono. Fat 54% Omega-6 7% Omega-3
  • Walnut Oil 16% Sat. Fat 28% Mono. Fat 51% Omega-6 5% Omega-3Peanut Oil 18% Sat. Fat 48% Mono. Fat 34% Omega-6 0% Omega-3Lard 41% Sat. Fat 47% Mono. Fat 11% Omega-6 1% Omega-3Chicken Fat 31% Sat. Fat 47% Mono. Fat 21% Omega-6 1% Omega-3Beef Fat 52% Sat. Fat 44% Mono. Fat 3% Omega-6 1% Omega-3Butterfat 66% Sat. Fat 30% Mono. Fat 2% Omega-6 2% Omega-3Coconut Oil 92% Sat. Fat 6% Mono. Fat 2% Omega-6 0% Omega-3Palm Oil 51% Sat. Fat 39% Mono. Fat 10% Omega-6 0% Omega-3
linolenic acid fat content linolenic acid
α linolenic acid Fat content/α linolenic acid

Fat content(g/100g) / α-linolenic acid(g/100g) :

Butter 83.2 1.20 69.3

Lard 100.0 0.98 102.04

Linseed oil 100.0 54.2 1.84

Soybean oil 100.0 7.70 12.98

Rapseed oil 100.0 9.15 10.93

Walnut oil 100.0 13.5 7.40

Olive oil 100.0 0.86 625

Vegetable oil 80.0 2.40 33.3

Almonds 54.1 0.26 208.07

Hazelnut 61.6 0.15 410.6

Walnuts 62.5 6.80 9.19

Kale 0.90 0.35 2.57

Lettuce 0.22 0.07 3.14

Parsley 0.36 0.12 3.00

Potato 0.11 0.02 5.5

Cauliflower 0.18 0.10 1.8

Spinach 0.30 0.13 2.31

White cabbage 0.20 0.09 2.22

Wheat bran 4.65 0.16 29.06

fat content epa g 100g dha g 100g fat content epa g 100g dha g 100g
Fat content EPA(g/100g) DHA(g/100g) fat content/EPA(g/100g)+DHA(g/100g)

fat content(g/100g) EPA+DHA(g/100g) fat content/EPA+DHA(g/100g)

Eel 24.5 0.83 29.51

Hering 17.8 2.72 6.54

Sprat 16.6 3.23 5.14

Tuna 15.5 3.37 4.60

Salmon 13.6 2.86 4.76

Mackerel 11.9 1.75 6.8

Carp 4.8 0.30 16

Sardine 4.5 1.39 3.24*

Swordfish 4.4 1.79 2.45*

Trout 2.7 0.59 4.58

Halibut 1.7 0.51 3.33*

Cod 0.6 0.18 3.33*

Haddock 0.6 0.16 3.75*

Lobster 1.9 0.20 9.5

Shrimp 1.4 0.30 4.66

Mussels 1.4 0.15 9.33

Anchovy 2.3 0.50 4.60

Sardine 13.9 2.44 5.70

which tablet nutrition for consumer health
Which tablet & nutrition for consumer health???

Cinnamon

Garlic

Parsley

Ginkgo bloba

Tebocan

Cumadin

Aspirin/coraspirin

Ginger

Omega 3

infant nutrition upto day 42
Infant nutrition/upto day 42

n-3 omega PUFAs pyschomotor

+

birthweight

+ N balance breast milk supl. with omega 3 and its effect???

(Woltil et al. 1999;Hayashi et al. 1999; Morley. 1998)

omega meat industry
Omega & meat industry

Peroxide poultry fed with 8-12% fish meal (O’Keefe, Proudfoot & Ackman, 1995)

No change lamb oxidative stress

(Ponnampalam et al, 2001)

Oxidative or nonoxidant or no change for meat products, which??

Enrichment of meat products with n-3 Ω(Raes, Smet & Demeyer, 2003)

What about serum CH & n-3Ω levels followed by consumption.??

no study on bone health
No study on bone health!!!

Only; lenght growth

rats, fed with n-3Ω

vertebral peak load

(Sirois, Cheung & Ward, 2003)

application points of n 3
Application points of n-3 Ω

Aerospace industry

Cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis, athrial fibrilosis, thrombose & emboly

Cancer (esp in gastrointestinal org.)

Diabetes type 2

Depression&stress

Inflammation; crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, MS, chronic glomerular disease, erythematıosus, eczema, psoriasis, IBD)

Infant nutrition

Pre/post operative periods in surgery

Alzheimer

slide35
Questions;

1 What amount DHA&EPA supl.

for

Which DHA&EPA metabolic serum levels ?

  • Initial n-3/n-6 omega serum levels in the patient
  • The DHA/EPA amount in supplementation(from food or tablet)
most accepted recommend by fao who trautwein 2001
Most accepted recommend?(by FAO/WHO)(Trautwein 2001)
  • 5-10:1(n-6/n-3)
  • 10/1 no effect
  • 15/1 16.7/1
  • 2.5/1 colorectal cancer
  • 4/1 no effect
  • 2-3/1 rheumatoid arthritis
  • 5/1 asthma
      • (Simopoulos AP, 2002)
missing application points
Missing application points;
  • Bone&skleton health
  • Consumer education and correct dose
  • Oxidation or antioxidation capacity
  • Meat hygine and nutrition
  • Sport industry
  • Cosmetic industry
slide38
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slide41
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