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Media Enhanced Learning

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  1. Media Enhanced Learning Theory and Practice

  2. Workshop Goals • encourage you to incorporate multimedia into teaching • give guidelines on best use of multimedia • provide resources • gather suggestions for future workshops

  3. Workshop Agenda • overview of human learning processes • cognitive vs. information delivery • suggest methods for improving learning • review six media element principles • apply guidelines to course materials • discussion and brainstorming throughout • get suggestions for future workshops

  4. Diagram of Cognitive Learning Processes

  5. Cognitive Learning Theory • human memory has 2 channels for processing information: visual and auditory • human memory has limited capacity for processing information • learning occurs by active processing in memory system • new knowledge and skills must be retrieved from long term memory to be used

  6. Metacognition Defined • learner’s overall ability to manage their learning • set goals for learning • create a plan for reaching goals • monitor progress in achieving goals • ex. Freshman vs. Senior

  7. Information Delivery • information is delivered through eyes and ears (if sound, music, narration, etc. is used) • stored briefly in visual and auditory sensory memory

  8. Working Memory • information from temporary sensory memory enters working memory • site where all active thinking happens • has limited capacity • active processing called rehearsal

  9. Encoding and Retrieval • encoding is process of integrating new knowledge with existing knowledge in long-term memory • retrieval is process of getting knowledge from long-term memory

  10. Processes Needed for Learning • selection of important information for learner • management of limited capacity in working memory to allow for rehearsal • integration of information in working memory with existing knowledge from long-term memory • retrieval of new knowledge when needed • management of above via metacognitive skills

  11. Methods for Improving Learning • direct student attention to important information by • adding learning objectives at beginning of lessons • use an arrow to point to relevant part of a diagram or picture • suggestions from group

  12. Methods for Improving Learning • manage limited capacity in working memory by • following “less is more” principle and avoiding extraneous images, text, sound (if using audio) • suggestions from group

  13. Methods for Improving Learning • aid integration by • presenting verbal and visual information together • show text explanation in a graphic within the image rather than above or below it (see next slide for example) • providing practice exercises and worked examples • suggestions from group

  14. Present text within graphic

  15. Methods for Improving Learning • promote retrieval from long-term memory by • creating practice exercises that fall within the context of future use of the knowledge or skills • use “real life or job” scenarios for good retrieval hooks later on • avoid edutainment – type exercises (Jeopardy) • suggestions from group

  16. Methods for Improving Learning • develop better metacognitive management by • including monitoring systems • self-checks or quizzes • journals • suggestions from group

  17. Six Media Element Principles • multimedia • contiguity • modality • redundancy • coherence • personalization

  18. Multimedia Principle • multimedia – any presentation containing words and pictures • words may be written or spoken • pictures are • static images like charts, diagrams, maps, photos • dynamic graphics like animations or video • use words and graphics rather than words alone to promote active learning

  19. Graphics • use graphics that support content • avoid graphics that merely decorate • use representative graphics (e.g., screen snap shots) to illustrate facts and concepts • use graphics to illustrate concepts • use graphics to teach facts • use graphics to show relationships

  20. Illustrate Concepts Click on image to view this example online

  21. Teach Facts Click on image to view this example online

  22. Show Relationships Click on image to view this example online

  23. Contiguity Principle • contiguity principle means placing corresponding words and graphics near each other • reduces need to search for which part of graphic relates to which words • web pages should not require scrolling to see words that go with a graphic • printed pages should have graphic and words on same page

  24. Contiguity Example 1

  25. Contiguity Example 2

  26. Modality Principle • modality principle suggests that words be spoken rather than presented as printed text • when simultaneously presenting a graphic and words that explain it • reduces demands on visual processing since both incoming information channels (visual and auditory) are used not just visual

  27. Modality Example Click on image to view this example online

  28. Multimedia Sensory Memory Working Memory Printed Words Ears Phonetic Processing Pictures Eyes Visual Processing Visual Overload

  29. Two Channels Used Multimedia Sensory Memory Working Memory Spoken Words Ears Phonetic Processing Pictures Eyes Visual Processing

  30. Exceptions to Modality • use words instead of (or in addition to) audio narration when • technical terms are presented • key steps in a procedure are given • directions for a practice exercise are needed • words are needed as reference support

  31. Redundancy Principle • redundancy principle suggests that presenting both printed and spoken words can hurt learning • graphics explained by audio and redundant printed text should be avoided • graphics explained by audio is usually best • redundant printed text overloads the visual channel

  32. Eyes Ears Overloading Visual Channel Multimedia Presentation Sensory Memory Working Memory Animation Visual Component Printed Words Auditory Component Spoken Words

  33. Exceptions to Redundancy • consider narrating printed text when: • there are no pictures on screen • learner has enough time to process the pictures and text • learner is likely to have trouble processing spoken words • non-native speakers • seeing AND hearing words might be a benefit • foreign language, technical jargon, etc.

  34. Coherence Principle • coherence principle suggests that adding interesting but non essential material hurts learning • exclude extraneous information • entertaining stories and graphics not essential to learning objectives • background music and sounds • detailed textural descriptions • often done to “spice up” a presentation

  35. Extra Content Harmful • causes distraction – diverts attention from what is important • causes disruption – learner can’t build links among appropriate pieces of material • causes seduction – learner calls on inappropriate existing knowledge to organize the incoming material

  36. Extraneous Sounds, Pictures & Words • extraneous sounds can overload working memory capacity • pictures used to decorate distract and should be avoided • interest can’t be added to an otherwise boring lesson • can interfere with the process of sense-making due to limited cognitive capacity • extra words present same problems

  37. Personalization Principle • personalization principle suggests the use of conversational style • printed and spoken text is best done in informal/conversational style • use “you”, “your”, “I”, “our”, and “we” • don’t be too informal (Hey Dude…) • narrator is perceived as a partner engaging learner in conversation so learner works harder to understand

  38. Formal vs. Informal Writing Formal Example: This program is about what type of plants survive on different planets. For each planet, a plan will be designed. The goal is to learn what type of roots, stem, and leaves allow the plant to survive in each environment. Some hints are provided throughout the program. Informal Example You are about to start a journey where you will be visiting different planets. For each planet, you will need to design a plant. Your mission is to learn what type of roots, stem, and leaves will allow your plant to survive in each environment. I will be guiding you through by giving out some hints.

  39. Applying Guidelines in Visual Mode Only • use relevant graphics & text to communicate content (multimedia) • integrate text into the graphic on the screen, slide or page (contiguity) • avoid separating information that must be integrated for learning (contiguity)

  40. Applying Guidelines in Visual Mode Only • avoid irrelevant graphics, stories, & lengthy text (coherence) • write in conversational style using first and second person (personalization)

  41. Applying Guidelines in Audio & Visual Mode • use relevant graphics explained by audio narration to communicate content (multimedia) • maintain information the learner needs time to process in text on the screen (exception to modality principle) • directions to tasks • new terminology

  42. Applying Guidelines in Audio & Visual Mode • avoid covering or separating information that must be integrated for learning (contiguity) • do not present words as both onscreen text and narration when there are graphics on the screen (redundancy)

  43. Applying Guidelines in Audio & Visual Mode • script audio in a conversational style using first and second person (personalization) • avoid irrelevant videos, animations, music, stories, and lengthy narrations (coherence)

  44. Resources for Media • **MERLOT - • UMUC • Virtual Resource Site for Teaching with Technology • CSU Center for Distributed Learning • World Lecture Hall

  45. The End! e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning by Ruth Colvin Clark and Richard E. Mayer. Jossey-Bass, 2003. 0-07879-6501-9 Two copies available in SCCD Libraries at NSCC & SCCC Call number: HF1106.C55 2003