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Improving Human-Robot Interaction Jill Drury, The MITRE Corporation Collaborators: Holly Yanco, UMass Lowell Jean Scholtz, NIST Mike Baker, Bob Casey, Dan Hestand, Brenden Keyes, Phil Thoren (UML) Methodology for Evaluating HRI Two approaches: field and laboratory

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improving human robot interaction jill drury the mitre corporation

Improving Human-Robot InteractionJill Drury, The MITRE Corporation

Collaborators:

Holly Yanco, UMass Lowell

Jean Scholtz, NIST

Mike Baker, Bob Casey, Dan Hestand,

Brenden Keyes, Phil Thoren (UML)

methodology for evaluating hri
Methodology for Evaluating HRI
  • Two approaches: field and laboratory
  • Field work: so far, robotics competitions
    • See many different user interfaces but have no control over what operator does
    • Difficult to collect data
    • Can see what they did – but there isn’t time to determine why
    • Best used to get an idea of the difficulties in the real world
    • Can identify “critical events” but don’t know for certain whether operator was aware of them
methodology for evaluating hri3
Methodology for Evaluating HRI
  • Laboratory studies
    • Take what we learned in the real world and isolate factors to determine effects
    • Repeatability is still difficult to achieve due to fragile nature of robots
analysis frameworks
Analysis Frameworks
  • Taxonomy to define human/robot system
  • Detailed definition of human-robot interaction awareness
  • Coding scheme/metrics for analyzing data
  • Scholtz’ evaluation guidelines
taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Autonomy
  • Amount of intervention
  • Human-robot ratio
  • Level of shared interaction
  • Composition of robot teams
  • Available sensors
  • Sensor Fusion
  • Criticality
  • Time
  • Space
awareness as a concept from cscw
Awareness as a concept from CSCW
  • CSCW software:
    • “...makes the user aware that he is part of a group, while most other software seeks to hide and protect users from each other” [Lynch et al. 1990]
  • HRI software:
    • Makes humans aware of robots’ status and activities via the interface
what is awareness
What is “awareness”?
  • No standard definition in the CSCW field
    • We’ve seen at least 16 different definitions!
  • Are many different types of awareness, e.g.
    • Concept awareness
    • Conversational awareness
    • Group-structural awareness
    • Informal awareness
    • Peripheral awareness
  • Common thread: understanding that participants have of each other in a shared environment
  • Situation awareness
  • Social awareness
  • Task awareness
  • Workspace awareness
but cscw systems are different from robotic systems
But CSCW systems are different from robotic systems…
  • CSCW:
    • Multiple humans interacting via a CSCW system
  • Robotics:
    • Single or multiple humans interacting with a single or multiple robots
    • Non-symmetrical relationships between humans and robots; e.g., differences in
      • Free will
      • Cognition
tailoring an awareness definition for hri a base case
Tailoring an awareness definition for HRI: a base case
  • Given one human and one robot...
  • ... HRI awareness is the understanding that the human has of the
    • location,
    • activities,
    • status, and
    • surroundings of the robot; and
  • the knowledge that the robot has of
    • the human’s commands necessary to direct its activities and
    • the constraints under which it must operate
an awareness framework general case
An awareness framework: General case
  • Given n humans and m robots working together on a synchronous task, HRI awareness consists of five components:
    • Human-robot awareness
    • Human-human awareness
    • Robot-human awareness
    • Robot-robot awareness
    • Humans’ overall mission awareness
general case a detailed look
General case: a detailed look
  • Given n humans and m robots working together on a synchronous task, HRI awareness consists of five components:
    • Human-robot: the understanding that the humans have of the locations, identities, activities, status and surroundings of the robots. Further, the understanding of the certainty with which humans know this information.
    • Human-human: the understanding that the humans have of the locations, identities and activities of their fellow human collaborators
general case concluded
General case, concluded
  • Robot-human: the robots’ knowledge of the humans’ commands needed to direct activities and any human-delineated constraints that may require command noncompliance or a modified course of action
  • Robot-robot: the knowledge that the robots have of the commands given to them, if any, by other robots, the tactical plans of the other robots, and the robot-to-robot coordination necessary to dynamically reallocate tasks among robots if necessary.
  • Humans’ overall mission awareness: the humans’ understanding of the overall goals of the joint human-robot activities and the measurement of the moment-by-momentprogress obtained against the goals.
coding scheme problems relating to critical incidents
Coding Scheme: Problems Relating to Critical Incidents
  • Critical incident: Robot has, or could, cause harm or damage
  • Types of problems:
    • Local navigation
    • Global navigation
    • Obstacle encounter
    • Vehicle state
    • Victim identification (specific to search and rescue)
some metrics for hri
Some Metrics for HRI
  • Time spent navigating, on UI overhead and avoiding obstacles
  • Amount of space covered
  • Number of victims found
  • Critical incidents
    • Positive outcomes
    • Negative outcomes
  • Operator interventions
    • Amount of time robot needs help
    • Time to acquire situation awareness
    • Reason for intervention
scholtz guidelines tailored
Scholtz’ Guidelines (tailored)
  • Is sufficient status and robot location information available so that the operator knows the robot is operating correctly and avoiding obstacles?
  • Is the information coming from the robots presented in a manner that minimizes operator memory load, including the amount of information fusion that needs to be performed in the operators’ heads?
  • Are the means of interaction provided by the interface efficient and effective for the human and the robot (e.g., are shortcuts provided for the human)?
  • Does the interface support the operator directing the actions of more than one robot simultaneously?
  • Will the interface design allow for adding more sensors and more autonomy?
design guidelines
Design Guidelines
  • Enhance awareness
    • Provide a map of where the robot has been
    • Provide more spatial information about the robot in the environment to make the operators more award of their robot’s immediate surroundings
  • Lower cognitive load
    • Provide fused sensor information to avoid making the user fuse data mentally
    • Display important information near or fused with the video image
design guidelines concluded
Design Guidelines, concluded
  • Increase efficiency
    • Provide user interfaces that support multiple robots in a single window, if possible
    • In general, minimize the use of multiple windows and maximize use of the primary viewing area
  • Provide help in choosing robot modality
    • Give the operator assistance in determining the most appropriate level of robot autonomy at any given time
fusing information
Fusing Information
  • Victims can be missed in video images