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The Role of Human Perception in Human-Robot Interaction Social Robotics Reading Group 3 November 2003 Agenda “All Robots Are Not Created Equal: The Design and Perception of Humanoid Robot Heads” Carl DiSalvo, Francine Gemperle, Jodi Forlizzi, Sara Kiesler

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the role of human perception in human robot interaction

The Role of Human Perception in Human-Robot Interaction

Social Robotics Reading Group

3 November 2003

agenda
Agenda
  • “All Robots Are Not Created Equal: The Design and Perception of Humanoid Robot Heads”
    • Carl DiSalvo, Francine Gemperle, Jodi Forlizzi, Sara Kiesler
  • “Matching Robot Appearance and Behavior to Tasks to Improve Human-Robot Cooperation”
    • Jennifer Goetz, Sara Kiesler, Aaron Powers
  • Discussion
paper 1 all robots are not created equal overview
Paper 1, “All Robots Are Not Created Equal”: overview
  • Assumption: A human-like head is desirable for human-robot interaction
    • Valid? See paper #2!
  • Question: What makes a “humanoid” robotic head more (or less) human-like?
  • Study: Survey
method
Method
  • Images of 48 robots from 3 categories
    • Research (e.g. Pearl)
    • Consumer Products (e.g. ASIMO)
    • Fiction (e.g. Transformer)
  • Images rated on a scale of 1 (“Not very human-like”) to 5 (“Very human-like”)
  • 20 participants per survey
analysis presence of features
Analysis: Presence of features
  • Presence (or lack) of features is important
  • Nose, Eyelids, Mouth
    • Increase perception of humanness the most
  • More features == more human-like
analysis comparison to human head
Analysis: Comparison to human head
  • Prototypical human head: average of
    • Mona Lisa
    • George Bush
    • Michelangelo’s David
    • Britney Spears
  • Most “human-like” robots: very similar dimensions
  • Less “human-like”: diverged
how human like is too human like
How human-like is too human-like?
  • The Uncanny Valley
  • “As a robot increases in humanness there is a point where the robot is not 100% similar to humans but the balance between humanness and machine-like is uncomfortable.”
paper 2 matching robot appearance and behavior overview
Paper 2, “Matching Robot Appearance and Behavior”: overview
  • Question: How should service robots look and behave, so that people comply?
    • Example: getting elderly to exercise
  • Three studies:
    • 1. Preferences for humanlike robots in jobs
    • 2. Compliance with a playful or serious robot
    • 3. Study 2 plus entertaining vs. serious task

(Findings just presented at RO-MAN)

study 1 preferences for robots in jobs
Study 1: Preferences for robots in jobs
  • Three stages of humanlikeness
    • Human
    • “Midstage”
    • Machine
  • Male vs. female; youth vs. adult (heads only)
  • Survey: which robot would be suitable for which jobs?
    • Robots presented in pairs (“which would be more suitable for <x>?”)
study 1 results
Study 1: results
  • Humanlike preferred over machinelike:
    • Actress, drawing instructor (Artistic)
    • Retail clerk, sales representative (Enterprise)
    • Office clerk, hospital message carrier (Conventional)
    • Aerobics instructor, museum tour guide (Social)
study 1 results continued
Study 1: results (continued)
  • Machinelike preferred over humanlike:
    • Lab assistant, customs inspector (Investigative)
    • Soldier, security guard (Realistic)
study 2 compliance with a serious or playful robot background
Study 2: Compliance with a serious or playful robot,Background
  • Positivity hypothesis
    • More attractive, extroverted, cheerful robot will have greater compliance
  • Matching hypothesis
    • Appearance and behavior should match the seriousness of the situation
study 2 method
Study 2: Method
  • Pearl leads participant in exercise
  • Playful: “Close your eyes… Relax… Breathe in… Don’t forget to breathe out. I don’t want you to pass out!”
  • Serious: “Close your eyes… Relax… Breathe in… Breathe out... Are you feeling relaxed?”
  • Asked to exercise on own (“as long as you can”)
study 2 results
Study 2: Results
  • Compliance: how long the participant exercised
  • Playful robot: average of 25 seconds
  • Serious robot: average of 53 seconds
  • Consistent with matching hypothesis
  • Manipulation check:
    • Serious robot: more conscientious, smarter
    • Playful robot: more playful and witty (and obnoxious)
study 3 fun vs serious task overview
Study 3: Fun vs. Serious Task, overview
  • 2x2 design
    • Playful vs. Serious robot
    • Fun vs. Serious task
  • Tasks:
    • Serious: Exercise task from study 2
      • Slight change: “as many exercises as you can”
    • Fun: Jellybean task
      • Create “recipes” using gourmet jellybeans
      • “As many combinations as you can”
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Match appearance and behavior to task
    • More humanlike appearance seems better for human-robot social interaction
    • Behavior needs to match task
  • What thresholds are appropriate?
    • How human in appearance?
    • How playful/serious?