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phineas gage
Phineas Gage was foreman of a dynamite crew working for the Rutland and Burlington Railroad in New England when a tapping iron, more than a meter in length and weighing 6 kg. shot through the left side of his head when a spark ignited the dynamite. Recovered in weeks but according to friends "Gage was no longer Gage." childlike, impulsive, given to profanity and drinking. He was fired, worked in a livery stable. then to South America to establish a coach line. Returned 8 years later, dying of epilepsy. He carried the tamping iron with him all those years. Phineas Gage
orbitofrontal cortex
Orbitofrontal cortex
  • Orbitofrontal cortex inhibits hypothalamus, the area responsible for basic appetitive behaviors such as feeding, fighting, fleeing, and mating.
slide10
1890 - Friederich Golz calms dogs by cutting their brains.

1935 - Following demonstration by Jacobson and Fulton that frontal lobe mutilation produced a "calming effect" in monkeys, Antonio Egaz Moniz cut the frontal lobes of 20 of his psychiatric patients and reported a similar "calming" effect.

1936 - Walter Freeman and James Watts introduce a surgical technique for frontal lobe lobotomy into the U.S.A. Early 'technique' involved drilling burrholes, later Freeman developed his famous transorbital approach pushing literally an icepick into the brain via the eye sockets.

1942 - The icepick lobotomy has spread worldwide and by now approximately 5000 people are lobotomised each year during the 1940's!

1949 - Egaz Moniz wins nobel prize for his lobotomy techniques.

slide12
Gray matter maturation – myelination doesn’t finish in frontal lobe until 30 y or so
  • Adults use frontal lobe to recognize emotions; teens use amygdala
frontal lobe functions
Environmental Control of Behavior

Difficulties using cues from the environment to direct, control, or change personal behavior.

Impaired ability to inhibit responses, leading to perseveration.

Breaking rules and taking risks (e.g. gambling); not following task instructions

Temporal Memory Impairment

Short-term memory impairment

Judgments about recency

Impaired Interpersonal Behaviors: Social & Sexual

Social & sexual behavior inappropriate or altered from previous forms

Pseudodepression & Pseudopsychopathy

Motor Function Disturbances

Loss of fine movement

Loss of speed and strength in hand & limb movement

Poor programming of movements

Poor voluntary eye gaze

Broca's aphasia

Loss of Divergent Thinking

Frontal lobe damage shows a loss of divergent thinking in various forms (multiple correct answers).

Loss of spontaneous behavior, e.g., speaking & verbal fluency, graphic designs & doodling, overall behavioral output (lethargy, initiation of daily routines

Impaired strategy formation & planning, especially in response to novel situations

Frontal Lobe Functions
slide16
Personality change
  • Environmental dependency
  • Mood disorders
  • OCD
slide17
Poor organizational strategies
  • Poor memory search strategies
  • Stimulus-bound behavior/environmental dependency
  • Impaired set shifting and maintenance
wisconsin card sorting task
Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
  • Response inhibition - perseveration failures
name ink colors
GLP

XTPD

RSLGT

ZMQ

WXFG

HLBG

NAME INK COLORS
name ink colors21
MAPLE

BAR

HORSE

CHILD

CLOUD

FORK

NAME INK COLORS
name ink colors22
GLP

XTPD

RSLGT

ZMQ

SPR

HLBG

OSLGT

ZQX

RTRE

YYP

WXFG

NAME INK COLORS

ROSLG

GWL

SLPD

RSLGT

OMQ

FGYT

JBB

RSLGT

XLL

LLFG

TLG

WXFG

GLP

RMS

MQL

XTPD

RSLGT

TTG

HBG

UJU

LGT

ZQP

XLL

ROLG

GWL

SLPD

RGR

ZMQ

FGYT

JUQ

ELGT

LLFG

TLG

name ink colors23
RED

GREEN

BLUE

BLUE

RED

BROWN

GREEN

RED

GREEN

BLUE

BROWN

NAME INK COLORS

RED

GREEN

BLUE

GREEN

BROWN

RED

BLUE

GREEN

RED

GREEN

BROWN

BLUE

RED

RED

BLUE

BROWN

GREEN

RED

BLUE

GREEN

RED

BROWN

RED

BLUE

GREEN

BLUE

BROWN

RED

GREEN

BLUE

RED

GREEN

BROWN

stroop task
Stroop Task
  • Reading is overlearned, difficult to stop
  • Meaning of color word competes with ink name when incongruent ink-word correspondence
  • Ability to Inhibit Automatic Processes
frontal lobe functions26
Frontal Lobe Functions
  • Frontal areas modulate and control motor function, emotion, attention and other cognitive activity.
    • Impairments can be considered specific deficits of control.
  • Cognitive Impairment
    • IQ is unaffected, however subtle cognitive impairments remain.
slide27
Impaired Abstract Reasoning and Hypothesis testing
    • failure to maintain goal-directed behavior.
    • inability to perform abstract reasoning (requires complex associations between semantic elements, identifying super-ordinate categories
    • failure to generalize experiences into rules or general principles
    • Mental flexibility (set shifting problems) and distractibility
  • Disturbance of Behavior and Personality
    • lack of originality and creativity
    • inappropriate emotions and behavior, with little awareness of it
    • difficulty initiating behavior or stopping when started (perseveration).
  • Language Impairment
    • Low verbal production, little initiation of conversation, sometimes to mutism.
slide28
Impairment of Social Behavior
    • deficits in maintaining appropriate social responses. (even minor deviations in social behavior are noticeable).
    • generating appropriate behavioral options in social situations and choosing the best alternative. Often base behavior on concrete simple motivations and cannot comprehend more complex or abstract reasons for acting.
  • Confabulation and Reduplication Syndrome
    • tend to fabricate quick, impulsive answers to questions.
    • reduplication. Claims current environment (e.g., hospital) is actually another place.
  • Impairment of Motor Function
    • Problems with highly controlled, volitional components of motor control.
      • perseveration, incoordination, motor impersistence and hypokinesia as well as ideomotor apraxia. Worse for opposite extremities.
  • Impairment of Reflexes
    • inhibition of fundamental reflexes such as grasp and sucking. Patient will grasp when palm stroked. Patient cannot release object even when told to attend to the hand. Or patient compelled to suck on an object placed in his/her lips.
understanding language
Understanding Language
  • Speech Origins: phylogeny, ontogeny (glottogenesis)
  • Language Acquisition Failures: autism, deaf of hearing parents, feral/neglected, phonological and syntactical problems
  • Language Loss: aphasias, hemispherectomy, split brain
  • Normal development – individual differences, bilingualism
  • Cultural differences
  • Its use and creation
what is language
What is Language?
  • Unique to humans or not
    • Continuity vs discontinuity theories
  • Nature of language
    • What constitutes language?

Essential features

hockett s design features
Hockett’s Design Features
  • Semanticity -- Specific signals can be matched with specific meanings.
hockett s design features35
Hockett’s Design Features
  • Arbitrariness -- No necessary connection between the form of the signal and the thing being referred to. No resemblance of elements. (Onomatopoeic words are not entirely arbitrary.)
hockett s design features37
Hockett’s Design Features
  • Discreteness -- Basic units of speech (such as sounds) belongs to distinct categories. No gradual, continuous shading from one to another in the linguistic system. Speakers perceive either a [p] or a [b], but not as blend, even if waveform falls somewhere between the two.
hockett s design features38
Hockett’s Design Features
  • Displacement -- Speaker can talk about things which are not present, spatially or temporally.
hockett s design features39
Hockett’s Design Features
  • Productivity -- Human languages allow speakers to create novel, never-before-heard utterances that others can understand.
hockett s design features40
Hockett’s Design Features
  • Traditional Transmission -- Individual is not born knowing their entire communication system (not entirely hard-wired) but must learn much about it to use it.
hockett s design features41
Hockett’s Design Features
  • Duality of patterning -- Discrete parts of a language can be recombined, reordered to create new forms.
spontaneous speech
Spontaneous Speech
  • Fluent versus nonfluent
  • Paraphasias
  • Word finding difficulties
  • Articulation
  • Effort
  • Prosody
auditory comprehension
Auditory Comprehension
  • Single words
  • Phrases
  • Whole body commands
  • Syntax
slide47
Repetition
    • Single words
    • Phrases
  • Reading
    • Single words
    • Phrases

Token test

non fluent aphasias
Non-fluent Aphasias
  • Broca’s aphasia
  • Global aphasia
  • Transcortical motor aphasia
  • Mixed transcortical aphasia
fluent aphasias
Fluent Aphasias
  • Wernicke’s aphasia
  • Anomic Aphasia
  • Conduction aphasia
  • Transcortical sensory aphasia
slide50
Conduction Aphasia

Fluent speech

Good comprehension

Poor repetition

Poor naming

Possibly lesion in arcuate fasciculus or its connections in inferior parietal lobule

Wernicke’s Aphasia

Fluent speech

Poor comprehension

Poor repetition

Poor naming

Posterior superior temporal lobe lesion (first temporal gyrus)

slide51
Broca’s Aphasia

Non-fluent speech

Good comprehension

Poor repetition

Poor naming

Posterior inferior frontal lesion

Global Aphasia

Non-fluent speech

Poor comprehension

Poor repetition

Poor naming

Lesion involves frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, Including Broca’s and Wernicke’s area

slide52
Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

Fluent speech

Poor comprehension

Good repetition

Poor naming

Lesion in posterior temporo-parietooccipital junction while sparing Wernicke’s area

Transcortical Motor Aphasia

Non-fluent speech

Good comprehension

Good repetition

Poor naming

Lesion involves frontal lobe but spares Broca’s area

slide53
Mixed Transcortical Aphasia

Non-fluent speech

Poor comprehension

Good repetition

Poor naming

Anterior and posterior association cortex lesions while sparing perisylvian language region

Anomic Aphasia

Fluent speech

Good comprehension

Good repetition

Poor naming

Temporal or temporo-parietal lesion

the hierarchy of language
The Hierarchy of Language
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Syntax
  • Semantics
  • Prosody
  • Paralinguistics
  • Pragmatics
phonology
Phonology
  • Sound pattern of language, including basic elements (phonemes) and rules of combination
  • Analogous to graphemes p vs /p/
  • 45 or so English phonemes
  • Infants can identify all 60+ human phonemes until age 8 months
morphology
Morphology
  • Structure of words and rules for building words out of elements
  • Morpheme = smallest unit of meaning
  • Free vs bound morphemes
  • Lexicon – our knowledge of words & word formation rules
syntax
Syntax
  • Structure of sentences and rules for building propositions from words
  • Role of order in changing meaning
semantics
Semantics
  • Meaning at level of words, phrases, sentences
prosody
Prosody
  • Alter sounds within phonemic category to change meaning of message – stress, elongate
paralinguistics
Paralinguistics
  • Non-linguistic sounds, movements, gestures that augment flow of language (body language, vocal qualifiers, intonation)
pragmatics
Pragmatics
  • Rules for how literal meaning is altered by social context