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    1. Fear Not the Tougher Crops Angela Storm Ball Horticulture astorm@ballhort.com (410) 897-7197

    2. Bottom heat is highly recommended. Soil temperature should be at 68-70F

    3. Unrooted cutting storage. Open boxes to cool cuttings in a cooler.

    4. or place cuttings temporary under mist on the bench.

    5. A well-draining rooting media is very important.

    6. Supply fertilizer as soon as cuttings start to root at 50-100 ppm N.

    7. Small amounts of different crops can be challenging water needs, rooting time.

    8. Walk the crop

    9. Dont let the liner over-grow. Pinch, use PGRs or move trays to a cooler area.

    10. Takes full sun! Begonia - Bonfire

    11. Bonfire Begonia - rooting

    12. Bonfire Begonia - rooting Tuberous Begonia Long day plant

    14. Bonfire Begonia - rooting Extend day length to 14 hours or start during long day conditions (March). Use paper pots, Jiffy, or other easy-to-extract rooting media. Maintain 72F, temperature measured in the substrate. Create a micro environment for rooting, avoid too much airflow. Mist as little as possible and only for the first few days. Start to decrease temperature and increase airflow when first roots show. Pinching the liners in the tray before transplant has shown nice results.

    15. Bonfire Begonia

    16. Bonfire Begonia - finishing Dont start too early. Its a fast finishing crop. Provide 14 hours of day length. Dont allow temperature to fall below 56F. Pinch hard to the third or fourth node, because node five might lead to dormancy.

    17. Bonfire Begonia - finishing

    18. Calibrachoa

    19. Calibrachoa - rooting

    20. Smaller and thinner cuttings compared to other plants Pre-dibbled whole might be too big and cuttings might sink too deep Calibrachoa - rooting

    21. Calibrachoa - rooting Its easy to over saturate a Calibrachoa cutting without noticing until the cutting shows it. Too much mist the first 10-14 days may lead to leaching out nutrients. yellowing tip burn uneven rooting uneven growth

    22. Calibrachoa - rooting Avoid stretched liners Applying PGR spray early B-Nine 2,000-3,000 ppm Sumagic 5-10 ppm Soft pinch, before the plant turns hard Place in a cooler area with high light condition ? Keep the liners young and overall on the soft side. Overgrown liners and hard cuttings wont perform as well and may require a second pinch.

    23. Calibrachoa - finishing

    24. MiniFamous Calibrachoa - finishing

    25. Calibrachoa - finishing PGR Pots Sprays can start about a week after transplant. 2,500 ppm B-Nine spray 10-20 ppm Sumagic spray Drench when side shoots cover the pot surface and plants have nicely rooted in. A follow-up spray application may become necessary depending on climate and fishing date. 0.25 ppm Sumagic drench

    26. Calibrachoa - finishing PGR Baskets Start to control vigor with spray applications until plants reach about 70-75% of the desired size (well branched and cover the pots surface). Apply drench at this stage. ?Too early drenches will reduce branching and lead to a more flat growth habit (less center branching). ?Apply the drench before lowering the temperature. 1 ppm Bonzi drench 10-20 ppm Sumagic spray 2,500-3,500 ppm B-Nine

    27. Calibrachoa - finishing Iron deficiency Most newer genetics can (should) handle a pH between 5.6 and 6.2. Test your soil for consistent quality. Keep your watering / fertilizing practice in mind. Adjust fertilizer based on crop stage and vigor. 50-150 ppm N: liners 200-250 ppm N: pots, baskets Do on-site media EC testing as well as laboratory testing (especially for individual nutrients).

    28. Calibrachoa - finishing Flowering too late? Choose early flowering varieties like MiniFamous Compact. Two weeks of day length extension will do the trick. Most cost effective when done in the propagation area. Dont grow the plants too cold after transplanting. Maintain temperatures until the plants are established (new growth covers almost all of the soil surface). Night 61-64F Day 68-72F 55-60F nights once the plants are established Avoid a late pinch (dont pinch 4-5 weeks before sales date). Florel and B-Nine are both know to delay flowering.

    29. Euphorbia Breathless

    30. Euphorbia propagation

    32. Soil temperature should be maintained at 68 to 74F (20-23C) until roots are visible. The key to euphorbia is quick sticking and little mist. Stick as soon as cuttings arrive to reduce ethylene exposure. Low duration, frequent is ideal initially, with total mist of 3-4 days or less. Begin fertilization with 75-100 ppm N when roots become visible. Increase to 150-200 ppm N as roots develop. Euphorbia propagation

    33. Euphorbia production

    34. Media A pH of 5.8-6.2 is optimum. Breathless Euphorbia prefer a well drained soil. Temperature Day: 65-75F (18-24C) Night: 60-67 (15-19C) Light Breathless Euphorbia should be grown under high light levels: 6,000-9,000 f.c. Foliage colors in Breathless Blush will be more pronounced under high light levels. Regular leaching will help to reduce buildup of excess salts in media. Euphorbia production

    35. Fertilizer Breathless Euphorbia have a moderate feed requirement. Use a constant liquid feed program of 150-200 ppm. Regular leaching will help to reduce buildup of excess salts in media. Watering The medium should be allowed to dry between waterings. Excess water will result in unwanted stretch and leaf loss. Low water and high light may reduce or eliminate the need for PGRs. Euphorbia production

    36. Breathless Euphorbia should be pinched at transplant if a pinch in propagation was not done, to encourage branching. ( 10 or larger sized pots may require a second shearing to shape, which will delay crop time slightly.) PGRs are generally not needed. Use B-Nine (s) 2,500 ppm, Cycocel(s) 750ppm tank mix 7-10 days after transplant if necessary. Do not use Florel. Euphorbia production

    37. Plant collapse: Stem canker (Botrytis) Plants grown in saturated media for extended periods of time (Pythium) Poor branching and thin plants: Low fertilization during early stages of growth; low light. Yellowing foliage: Euphorbia can be cold sensitive if not appropriately acclimatized. Lower foliage may yellow especially with high moisture and cold temperatures. Yellowing will also occur with application of Florel. Euphorbia production

    38. Euphorbia production

    39. Euphorbia production

    40. Osteospermum Voltage Yellow

    41. Osteospermum Voltage Yellow

    43. Propagation Soil temperature should be maintained at 68 to 74F (20-23C) until roots are visible. Mist frequently but low volume Do not allow cuttings to wilt Cuttings should be off mist asap. Once roots are visible, the media should be kept moist and never saturated. Begin fertilization with 75-100 ppm N when roots become visible. Increase to 150-200 ppm N as roots develop. No pinch required if finishing cool in 1 gallon or smaller

    44. Media A pH of 5.8-6.2 is optimum. Osteospermum prefer a well drained soil. Temperature Two weeks warm soil 62-65F after transplant, root and plant growth Then cool: Day: 55-75F Night: 50-60 Light Osteospermum should be grown under high light levels: 6,000-9,000 f.c.

    45. Fertilizer Osteospermum have a moderate feed requirement. Use a constant liquid feed program of 150-200 ppm. Regular leaching will help to reduce buildup of excess salts in media. Watering The medium should be allowed to dry between waterings. Excess water will result in unwanted stretch High light and cool temperatures will reduce or eliminate the need for PGRs.

    50. Lantana

    54. Lantana CHECKLIST FOR PROPAGATION

    56. Lantana CHECKLIST FOR FINISHING