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“Man’s heart away from Nature becomes hard.” -Standing Bear . Water is the Enemy. High volume and high velocity water must be taken into consideration in trail design Where other areas can get by with 10% grade, desert trails should aim for no more than 5-7%. Soils are Less Stable.

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Presentation Transcript
water is the enemy
Water is the Enemy

High volume and high velocity water must be taken into consideration in trail design

Where other areas can get by with 10% grade, desert trails should aim for no more than 5-7%

soils are less stable
Soils are Less Stable
  • Sandy and rocky
  • Little clay
  • No organic binders
  • Low shear strength
design for safety
Design For Safety
  • Calming devices
  • Sight Lines
  • Appropriate Width
protect resources
Protect Resources
  • Habitat
  • Historical/Cultural
  • Trails that meet needs
give em what they want
Give ‘em What They Want!
  • Viewpoints
  • Loops
  • Places of interest

Or they will go there anyway!

make it fun
Make it Fun!
  • Contours, turns and dips
  • Variety is the spice of trails
be consistent
Be Consistent
  • Sudden changes = bad
  • Sudden changes without warning = very bad
safety first
Safety First
  • Calming devices can be fun
  • Open sight lines
  • Wide at beginning
  • Wide on steep side slopes
crossing drainages
Crossing Drainages
  • Check dams above and below
  • Contour into large drainages
  • Cross at a right angle
crossing large drainages
Crossing Large Drainages
  • Build up with crib walls
  • Direct flow to middle
  • Downstream side higher
molars
Molars
  • If placed by Nature they work well
  • If placed by man, not so good
  • If necessary, think big
  • If not big, use several rocks to interlock
crib walls
Crib Walls
  • Good when bedrock or big rocks make benching impossible
  • Must be stable; pass the “jump test”
  • The bigger the rocks the better…
  • …But sometimes smaller rocks fit better
crib wall construction
Crib Wall Construction
  • On rocky side hills, let wall be above tread a few inches to hold soil
  • When possible, weather side out
  • Fill big to small
armoring
Armoring
  • When all else fails…
  • Leave an option for stock
  • Find a molar
getting water off
Getting Water Off
  • Rolling grade dip, not so good
  • Grade reversal is best
  • Done properly, knicks work well
diversions
Diversions
  • Why wait? Sometimes you can take the water off before it hits the trail
outslope
Outslope
  • Aggressive is good (5-8%)
  • Ankle roll test
aesthetics
Aesthetics
  • Build with a light touch
  • The desert recovers slowly
  • Make a new trail look old
aesthetics tips 1
Aesthetics Tips 1
  • Take clippings out of sight, cut end away from trail
  • Palo Verde branches can be put under another tree, cut end to trunk (1-2)
  • Prune for a natural look
  • No hat racks
  • Rub dirt on fresh cut
aesthetics tips 2
Aesthetics Tips 2
  • Work dirt lengthwise on trail to keep it from spreading downhill from tread
  • Pile dirt in middle, then broadcast (far) or cart away
  • Save rocks with weathered side above trail, place strategically after tread is done
aesthetics tips 3
Aesthetics Tips 3
  • Rocks without weathered surfaces (excavated) should be out of sight
  • If you mine rocks above the trail, cover holes (and slides) with weathered rocks
  • After work is complete, look above and below for any construction debris, cuttings
maintenance
Maintenance
  • No trail is maintenance-free, but sustainable trails require minimal work
  • Walk completed trail several times to look for potential trouble spots
  • Walk after first significant rain to check performance