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CTG – INTERPRET WITH CARE. Electronic In “active” labor – by convention needs to be continuous High false positives (K. Nelson 1996) Variable interpretations. Auscultated Prescribed intervals Various devices but one recorded number Easy to interpret Intermittent

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ctg interpret with care

CTG – INTERPRET WITH CARE

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

fetal monitoring in labor two acceptable methods
Electronic

In “active” labor – by convention needs to be continuous

High false positives (K. Nelson 1996)

Variable interpretations

Auscultated

Prescribed intervals

Various devices but one recorded number

Easy to interpret

Intermittent

Acceptable for “high” risk patients

Fetal Monitoring in Labor: Two Acceptable Methods

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

why auscultation
Simple

Well liked by patients

Clear cut action/ response

Improves ability to ambulate

Easier

Fewer C/S’s

Legally less damning- interpretation clear

Allows changing entire environment in L&D

Decreases patient, family, nurse and physician anxiety

Why Auscultation?

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide4
Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info
electronic monitoring later outcome nigel paneth 1993 clin invest med michigan st univ
Electronic Monitoring: Later OutcomeNigel Paneth 1993 Clin. Invest Med. Michigan St. Univ
  • “Central hypotheses of EFM has never been tested”
    • That is, “that its use (EFM) can effectively prevent the... brain damaging birth asphyxia by timely intervention in labor.”

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

for hypothesis to be true paneth 1993
For hypothesis to be true:Paneth (1993)
  • EFM must be reliable (inter-observer agreement on identity and meaning)
  • EFM must be valid (patterns statistically linked with adverse neurological events)
  • EFM and adverse outcome are related, specifically association is
  • causal

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide7
CRITICISMS TOWARDS CARDIOTOCOGRAPHY
  • Insufficient understanding of the (patho-)physiologic background
  • A number of technical pitfalls
  • Differences in recording techniques
  • Primarily qualitative information (pattern recognition)
  • Lack of uniform classification systems
  • Confusion due to the many influences on the fetal heart rhythm
  • Substantial intra- and inter-observer variation regarding the interpretation
  • Low validity, high incidence of false-positive findings
  • Primarily screening method, too often applied as a diagnostic
  • Leads to an increase in artificial deliveries
  • Lack of agreement on how, when, and whom to monitor
  • Contributes to medico-legal vulnerability

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

arguments against auscultation
Hard to do!

No, not really!

Requires more staff

Shouldn’t have to

Does not meet standard of care

Untrue!

Will cause fetal harm, or CP?

No more so than continuous EFM

May miss something?

-Such as??

Not legally defensible

Hardly

ARGUMENTS AGAINST AUSCULTATION

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

then why discuss ctg
THEN WHY DISCUSS CTG???
  • USEFUL IN HIGH RISK CASES.
  • STANDARDISED EVIDENCE BASED GUIDELINES ARE BEING LAID FOR CORRECT USE,INTERPRETATION , FURTHER DECISION MAKING & RECORD KEEPING.

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

appropriate monitoring in an uncomplicated pregnancy
Appropriate monitoring in an uncomplicatedpregnancy

For a woman who is healthy and has had an otherwise uncomplicated pregnancy, intermittent auscultation should be

offered and recommended in labour to monitor fetal wellbeing.

In the active stages of labour, intermittent auscultation should occur

after a contraction, for a minimum of 60 seconds, and at least:

• every 15 minutes in the first stage

• every 5 minutes in the second stage.

. Grade A Recommendation

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide11
Indications for the

use of continuous EFM

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide12

GRADE B RECOMMENDATION

Continuous EFM should be offered and recommended for high-risk

pregnancies where there is an increased risk of perinatal death,

cerebral palsy or neonatal encephalopathy.

Continuous EFM should be used where oxytocin is being used for

induction or augmentation of labour.

REF:RCOG GUIDELINES

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

admission ctg
ADMISSION CTG

Current evidence does not support the use of the admission CTG in

low-risk pregnancy and it is therefore not recommended

Grade B Recommendation

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

selected high risk indications for continuous monitoring of fetal heart rate
Selected High-Risk Indications for Continuous Monitoring of Fetal Heart Rate

Maternal medical illnessGestational diabetes Hypertension Asthma

Obstetric complicationsMultiple gestationPost-date gestationPrevious cesarean sectionIntrauterine growth restriction

OligohydramniosPremature rupture of the membranesCongenital malformationsThird-trimester bleedingOxytocin induction/augmentation of laborPreeclampsia

Meconium stained liquor

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide15
A Continuous EFM should be offered and recommended in pregnancies previously monitored with intermittent auscultation:
  • if there is evidence on auscultation of a baseline less than 110 bpm or greater 160 bpm

• if there is evidence on auscultation of any decelerations

• if any intrapartum risk factors develop.

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide16
Definitions and descriptions of individual features of fetal heart-rate (FHR) traces

Baseline fetal heart rate :The mean level of the FHR when this is stable, excluding accelerations and decelerations. It is determined over a time period of 5 or 10 minutes and expressed in bpm.

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide17
– Normal Baseline FHR 110–160 bpm

– Moderate bradycardia 100–109 bpm

– Moderate tachycardia 161–180 bpm

– Abnormal bradycardia < 100 bpm

– Abnormal tachycardia > 180 bpm

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide18

Baseline variability

The minor fluctuations in baseline FHR occuring at three to five

cycles per minute. It is measured by estimating the difference in beats per minute between the highest peak and lowest trough of fluctuation in a one-minute segment of the trace

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide19
Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info
accelerations
ACCELERATIONS

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

deccelerations
DECCELERATIONS
  • EARLY : Head compression
  • LATE : U-P Insufficiency
  • VARIABLE : Cord compression

Primary CNS dysfn

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

early
EARLY

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide23
LATE

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

variable
VARIABLE

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

atypical variable decelerations
Atypical Variable decelerations

With any of the following additional

decelerations components:

– loss of primary or secondary rise in baseline rate

– slow return to baseline FHR after the end of the contraction

– prolonged secondary rise in baseline rate

– biphasic deceleration

– loss of variability during deceleration

– continuation of baseline rate at lower level

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

categorisation of fetal heart rate traces
Categorisation of fetal heart rate traces

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide28

REDUCED VARIABILITY

Hypoxia Drugs Extreme prematurity

Sleep CNS abno.

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide29
Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info
slide30

TACHYCARDIA

Hypoxia ChorioamnionitisMaternal fever B-Mimetic drugsFetal anaemia,sepsis,ht failure,arrhythmias

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

special patterns

SPECIAL PATTERNS

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

sinusoidal pattern
Sinusoidal pattern

A regular oscillation of the baseline long-term variability resembling a sine wave. This smooth, undulating pattern, lasting at least 10 minutes, has a relatively fixed period of 3–5 cycles per minute and an amplitude of 5–15 bpm above and below the baseline. Baseline variability is absent

Associated with -

Severe chronic fetal anaemia

Severe hypoxia & acidosis

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide33

SINUSOIDAL

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slide34

PSEUDOSINUSOIDAL

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slide35

CHECKMARK PATTERN

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slide36

SALTATORYPATTERN

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slide37

LAMBDA PATTERN

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide38
Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info
slide39
Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info
slide40

SUSPICIOUS CTG

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide41

PATHOLOGICAL

FETAL SCALP

STIMULATION TEST

FETAL VIBROACAUSTIC

STIMULATION TEST

FETAL SCALP

BLOOD Ph

(If facilities available)

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide42

A Systematic Approach to Reading Fetal Heart Rate Recordings

  • Evaluate recording--is it continuous and adequate for interpretation?
  • Identify type of monitor used--external versus internal, first-generation versus second-generation.
  • Identify baseline fetal heart rate and presence of variability, both long-term and beat-to-beat (short-term).
  • Determine whether accelerations or decelerations from the baseline occur.
  • Identify pattern of uterine contractions, including regularity, rate, intensity, duration and baseline tone between contractions.
  • Correlate accelerations and decelerations with uterine contractions and identify the pattern.
  • Identify changes in the FHR recording over time, if possible.
  • Conclude whether the FHR recording is reassuring, nonreassuring or ominous.
  • Develop a plan, in the context of the clinical scenario, according to interpretation of the FHR.
  • Document in detail interpretation of FHR, clinical conclusion and plan of management.

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide43

Prior to any form of fetal monitoring, the maternal pulse should be

  • palpated simultaneously with FHR auscultation in order to
  • differentiate between maternal and fetal heart rates.
  • If fetal death is suspected despite the presence of an apparently
  • recordable FHR, then fetal viability should be confirmed with realtime
  • ultrasound assessment.

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide44
Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info
record keeping in ctg
RECORD KEEPING IN CTG
  • The date and time clocks on the EFM machine should be correctly set
  • Traces should be labelled with the mother’s name, date and hospital number
  • Any intrapartum events that may affect the FHR should be noted contemporaneously on the EFM trace, signed and the date and time noted (e.g. vaginal examination, fetal blood sample, siting of an epidural)

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide46

Any member of staff who is asked to provide an opinion on a trace should note their findings on both the trace and maternal case notes, together with time and signature

  • • Following the birth, the care-giver should sign and note the date,time and mode of birth on the EFM trace
  • • The EFM trace should be stored securely with the maternal notes at the end of the monitoring process.

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

some interesting cases

SOME INTERESTING CASES

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide48

ACCELERATION OR DECCELERATION ???

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide49

BASELINE BRADYCARDIA WITH ACCELERATIONS

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide50

HALVING PHENOMENON

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slide51

EXCESSIVE VARIABILITY???

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slide52

GESTATIONAL DM ; NST ; 8:30am

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide53

GDM ; CST ; 12 noon

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

slide54

BLUNTED PATTERN WITH VARIABLE DECCELERATIONS – CNS DYSFUNCTION

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info

thank you

Thank you

Dr Mona Shroff www.obgyntoday.info