chapter 8 hybrid technology and multichip modules l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 70

Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 678 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules Hybrid = mixture, i. e.: Components and wiring integrated on the substrate . Picture shows a thin film hybrid for seismic electronics.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules' - benjamin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 8 hybrid technology and multichip modules
Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

Hybrid = mixture, i. e.: Components and wiring integrated on the substrate. Picture shows a thin film hybrid for seismic electronics.

The course material was developed in INSIGTH II, a project sponsored by the Leonardo da Vinci program of the European Union

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

types of hybrids and multichip modules
Types of Hybrids and Multichip Modules
  • Thick film technology
    • High temperature thick film hybrid technology
    • Polymer thick film hybrid technology
  • Thin film technology
    • Conventional thin film technology (one conductor layer)
    • Multilayer thin film technology
  • Multichip modules:
    • Multilayer ceramic (MCM-C) (C for ceramic)
    • Multilayer thin film (MCM-D) (D for deposited)
    • Multilayer fineline circuit boards (MCM-L) (L for laminated)
  • Please also confer to Chapters 3 and 5 for basic processes

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

high temperature thick film technology
High Temperature Thick Film Technology
  • Important substrate properties
    • Dimensional stability
    • Good adhesion
    • High thermal conductivity
    • Thermal compatibility with components
    • High electrical resistivity
    • Low dielectric constant (not satisfied in alumina)
    • Low dielectric loss tangent
    • Good machinability (not satisfied in ceramics)
    • Low price

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

screen printing and stencil printing
Screen Printing and Stencil Printing
  • Fig. 3.11: Screen printing: a) and b): Printing process, c) and d): Details of the screen

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

high temp thick film continued
High Temp Thick Film, continued
  • Practical materials:
    • Alumina
    • Aluminium nitride
    • (Beryllia)
    • (Silicon carbide)

Table 8.1:Properties of substrate materialsfor hybrid technology.P: Plastic In: Insulator

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

conductor materials
Conductor Materials
  • Composition
    • Functional element (metal particles)
    • Binder (glass particles)
    • Solvents
  • Desired properties
    • High electrical conductivity
    • Good adhesion to substrate
    • Good solderability
    • Good bondability
    • Low price

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

conductor materials continued
Conductor Materials, continued
  • Practical functional element
    • Gold
    • Ag/Pd
    • Ag/Pt
    • Copper

Table 8.2 Properties of thick film conductor systems

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thick film resistors
Thick Film Resistors
  • Important properties
    • Large range of resistor values
    • High stability
    • Low thermal coefficient of resistivity
    • Low voltage coefficient of resistivity
    • Low noise
  • Materials
    • Oxides of ruthenium
    • Oxides of iridium, rhodium, osmium
    • Sheet resistance: 1 - 109 ohms/sq

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

properties of thick film resistors
Properties of Thick Film Resistors

Table 8.3: Typical properties of thick film resistors.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

termination of thick film resistors
Termination of Thick Film Resistors

Fig. 8.2: Thick film resistor with termination

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

insulators dielectrics
Insulators / Dielectrics
  • Desired properties:
    • High insulation resistance
    • High breakdown field
    • Low dielectric constant (insulation)
    • Suitable/high dielectric constant (dielectric)
    • Low temperature coefficient (dielectric)
    • Low voltage coefficient (dielectric)
    • Low loss tangent
    • Little porosity

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

insulators dielectrics continued
Insulators / Dielectrics, continued
  • Materials
    • Aluminium oxide/glass (insulator)
    • Ceramics/glasses as for capacitors (dielectric)
    • Please also see Chapter 4

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

insulators dielectrics continued13
Insulators / Dielectrics, continued

Table 8.4: Typical properties of printed and discrete capacitors.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

production process for high temperature thick film technology
Production Process for High Temperature Thick Film Technology
  • Layout and photolithographics
    • CAD work
    • Photo or laser plotting of master films
    • Printing screens made with master films

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

production process continued
Production process, continued
  • Printing process
    • Printing
    • Drying at 100 - 150 °C
    • Firing at 700 - 1000 °C

Fig 8.1: Typicaltemperature profilefor thick filmfiring.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

production process continued16
Production process, continued
  • Testing and laser trimming
    • Initial value targeted 20 - 30 % below specified value
    • Laser trimming to increase resistance within ± 0.5 or ± 1.0 %

Fig. 8.4: Probe card for testing of thick- and thin film hybrid circuits. Coaxial probes are used for high frequency signals.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

laser trimming
Laser trimming

Fig. 8.5: Laser trim cut forms: a): L-cut, the most common b): Top hat plunge cut c): Digital trimming, which is most used for high precision thin film resistors

a)

b)

c)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

laser trimming continued
Laser trimming, continued

Fig. 8.6: Laser trimmer for thick film hybrid circuits, ESI Model 44.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

production process continued19
Production process, continued

Fig. 8.7: Process flow for mounting of thick film hybrid circuits based on: a): Naked ICs and gluing of discrete components.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

production process continued20
Production process, continued

Fig. 8.7: Process flow for mounting of thick film hybrid circuits based on: b): Soldering of packaged ICs and discrete components.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

polymer thick film technology
Polymer Thick Film Technology
  • In polymer thick film hybrid technology (PTF) conductors, resistors and insulating layers use a polymer matrix instead of glass matrix, and these are made in several layers on ordinary printed wiring board laminates, flexible substrates and injection moulded plastic materials that can serve as combined printed circuits and chassis.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

polymer thick film continued
Polymer Thick Film, continued
  • Advantages
    • Low price
    • Simple processes
    • Fast production throughput
    • Well suited for repair/modification
    • Printed resistors possible
    • Additive technology
    • Printed wiring boards for substrates
    • Specialities:
      • Membrane switch panels
      • Contacts

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

polymer thick film continued23
Polymer Thick Film, continued
  • Limitations
    • Satisfies only moderate environmental requirements
    • Low/moderate complexity
    • High sheet resistivity in conductors
    • Special design rules
    • Limited solderability
    • Limited shelf life for pastes
    • Limited availability

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

polymer thick film continued24
Polymer Thick Film, continued

Fig. 8.8: Polymer Thick film (PTF) carbon technology, for:

a): Keyboard contacts.

b): Contacts of LCD- displays.

c): Sliding potentiometer.

CPTF means carbon type PTF.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

polymer thick film continued25
Polymer Thick Film, continued
  • Materials
    • Matrix: Thermosetting /thermoplastic polymer
    • Conductor: Ag, Cu, C
    • Solvents
    • Additives to adjust consistency
      • Ceramic or other additives

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

polymer thick film continued26
Polymer Thick Film, continued
  • A typical process
    • The starting material is a laminate with a single sided etched conductor pattern in Cu foil
      • 1. Cleaning of the board
      • 2. Printing of PTF insulation layer, 2 prints, drying in between
      • 3. Drying
      • 4. UV curing
      • 5. Printing of PTF conductor
      • 6. Drying
      • 7. Curing in IR in-line furnace
      • 8. Chemical plating of metal (Optional)
      • 9. Printing of top layer
      • 10. Drying
      • 11. Curing in IR furnace.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

polymer thick film continued27
Polymer Thick Film, continued

Fig. 8.9: Membrane switch panel, principle.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

ptf continued
PTF, continued

Fig. 8.10: PTF based printed wiring boards: a): Single sided board with PTF for one complete conductor layer on top of one Cu foil conductor plate. b): Double sided, through hole plated board with one extra PTF conductor layer on each side. c): Double sided board through hole printed PTF conductor, instead of through hole plating.d): PTF resistor

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thin film technology
Thin Film Technology
  • Substrate materials
    • Alumina, glass, silicon
  • Conductor materials
    • Gold, aluminium
  • Resistor materials
    • NiCr (Chrom nickel), Ta2N (Tantal nitride)
  • Insulation/dielectrics/passivation materials
    • SiO2 (Silicon dioxide), SiN3 (Silicon nitride), Al2O3 (Aluminium oxide), Ta2O5 (Tantal oxide)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thin film technology continued
Thin Film Technology, continued

Table 8.5: Properties of thin film resistors. (d: skin depth. Evap: Vacuum evaporation. Sp: Sputtering)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thin film processing
Thin FilmProcessing
  • Photolithography and etching
  • Vacuum evaporation
  • Sputtering
  • Plating
  • Oxidation

Fig. 8.11: Process flow for production of thin film hybrid circuits.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

vacuum deposition and sputtering
Vacuum Deposition and Sputtering
  • Vacuum evaporation:
    • Chamber evacuated toless than 10-6 Torr
    • Resistance heating
    • Metal evaporation

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

other methods for deposition of conducting or insulating films
Other Methods for Deposition of Conducting or Insulating Films
  • DC Sputtering (Fig. 3.13.a)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

deposition continued
Deposition, continued
  • Radio Frequency AC Sputtering (Fig.3.13.b)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thin film processing continued
Thin Film Processing, continued

Fig. 8.12 : Structure of thin film resistor with gold termination.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thin film processing continued36
Thin Film Processing, continued

Fig. 8.13: Thin film microwave circuit, schematically.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thin film processing continued37
Thin Film Processing, continued

Fig. 8.14: Thin film transistors, structure.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

thin film processing continued38
Thin Film Processing, continued
  • Circuit production
  • Glueing
  • Wire bonding
  • Testing
  • Packaging in hermetic (metal) box

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

wire bonding
Wire Bonding
  • Ultrasonic
  • Thermo-compression
  • Thermosonic
  • Geometry Types
    • Ball - wedge:Shown in illustration
    • Wedge - wedge

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

multilayer thin film mcm d
Multilayer Thin Film – MCM-D
  • Process
    • 1. Spinning polyimide insulation
    • 2. Deposition Al metallization
    • 3. Photolithography, wet etch
    • 4. Spinning polyimide
    • 5. Etching vias
    • 6. Repetition steps 1 - 5
    • 7. Metallization and etching of metal

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued
MCM-D, continued

Fig. 8.15 a): AT&T´s structure for multilayer thin film. Please also see also Figure 2.13.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued42
MCM-D, continued

Fig. 8.15 b): Cross section of Raychem´s High Density Interconnect (HDI) schematically and observed through microscope.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued43
MCM-D, continued

Fig. 8.16: Elements of the design rules for Raychem´s HDI technology

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued44
MCM-D, continued

Fig. 8.17: Characteristic impedance for Raychem´s HDI as function of the ratio between conductors width and dielectric thickness.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued45
MCM-D, continued

Fig. 8.18a): Dissipation factor for Raychem´s HDI

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued46
MCM-D, continued

Fig. 8.18. b):Typical attenuation, as function of frequency, for Raychem´s HDI. Even at 10 GHz attenuation in the conductor metal dominates.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued47
MCM-D, continued
  • Advantages
      • Optimal thermal match when Si substrate
      • High thermal conductivity in Si: 150 W/°C x m
      • Termination resistors and decoupling capacitors integrated in substrate
      • Compatibility with:
        • Wire bonding
        • TAB
        • Flip chip
      • Very high conductor density/package density
      • Very good high frequency properties
      • Good mechanical properties of Si substrate
      • High reliability

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm d continued48
MCM-D, continued
  • Disadvantages:
    • Low availability and high cost
    • Polyimide is hygroscopic
    • Important properties change
    • Reliability problems
    • Hermetic encapsulation necessary
    • Immature technology

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

multilayer ceramic modules mcm c
Multilayer Ceramic Modules - MCM-C
  • Materials
    • Alumina
    • Aluminium nitride
  • Pioneer: IBM
  • Fabrication: Green Tape process

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued
MCM-C, continued

Fig. 8.19: Production process for multilayer ceramic, schematically.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued51
MCM-C, continued
  • Advantages
    • High thermal conductivity
    • Low TCE, match to Si, GaAs, SMDs
    • Compatible to flip chip, wire bonding, TAB, SMD soldering
    • Control over characteristic impedance
    • Hermetic encapsulation possible, high reliability
    • Many conductor layers, high yield
    • Edge contacts, etc. brazed on

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued52
MCM-C, continued
  • Disadvantages
    • Low electrical conductivity in inner layers (Rsq ~ 15 mOhm/sq)
    • High dielectric constant, r ~ 9 - 10
    • High startup cost for custom specific circuits

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued53
MCM-C, continued

Fig. 8.20: Combination of naked chips in cavities and soldered, packaged SMD components on multilayer ceramic module

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued54
MCM-C, continued

Fig. 8.21.a: Characteristic impedance for typical geometries and dimensions, Al2O3-based multilayer ceramic: a): Open microstrip.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued55
MCM-C, continued

Fig. 8.21.b: Characteristic impedance for typical geometries and dimensions, Al2O3-based multilayer ceramic: b): Buried microstrip.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued56
MCM-C, continued

Fig. 8.21.c: Characteristic impedance for typical geometries and dimensions, Al2O3-based multilayer ceramic: c): Stripline.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

mcm c continued57
MCM-C, continued

Table 8.6: Properties of alumina-based high temperature multilayer ceramic.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

low temperature multilayer ceramic modules ltmcm c
Low Temperature Multilayer Ceramic Modules - LTMCM-C
  • Substrate materials
    • Glasses, glass ceramics:
      • Mullite, corderite, lead borosilicate glass...
    • Conductors
      • Gold, silver, AgPd
    • Resistors
      • Similar to thick film
      • Properties: Table 8.7.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

ltmcm c continued
LTMCM-C, continued

Table 8.7: Electrical and physical properties of low temperature multilayer ceramic. a): Electrical properties.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

ltmcm c continued60
LTMCM-C, continued

Table 8.7: Electrical and physical properties of low temperature multilayer ceramic. b): Resistor Performance - Resistance and TCR.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

ltmcm c continued61
LTMCM-C, continued

Table 8.7: Electrical and physical properties of low temperature multilayer ceramic. c) Physical properties.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

ltmcm c continued62
LTMCM-C, continued
  • Advantages
    • Low process temperature
    • Most process steps can be done in high temperature thick film production line
    • Flexibility in conductor materials, low sheet resistivity
    • Plating not necessary for bonding
    • Screen printed resistors
    • Low er dielectric materials

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

ltmcm c continued63
LTMCM-C, continued
  • Disadvantages
    • High costs
    • Low thermal conductivity
    • Brittle materials
    • Low availability

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

power electronic modules
Power Electronic Modules
  • Challenges
    • Spread the heat, reduce thermal resistance
    • Reduce thermal stress
    • Provide electrical insulation for ~ 2.5 kV
    • Design for EMC, reduce L
    • Higher integration "smart power”

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

power electronic modules continued
Power Electronic Modules, continued
  • Technologies
    • Polymer on metal
    • Thick film
    • Plated ceramic substrate
    • Direct Copper Bonding (DCB)
    • Plasma sprayed dielectric on metal base

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

power electronic modules direct copper bonding
Power Electronic Modules:Direct Copper Bonding

Fig. 8.22 a): The coefficient of thermal expansion for direct copper bonding (DCB) substrates with a layer of 0,6 mm alumina sandwiched between Cu layers of various thicknesses as given in the figure.b): The number of thermal cycles to fracture for DCB substrates with varies Cu thickness. The cycles were in the temperature interval -40 - +110°C.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

direct copper bonding continued
Direct Copper Bonding, continued

Fig. 8.23: Power electronic module [Toshiba data sheet]. The substrate (top) is DCB with AlN insulation. It is soldered to a heavy Cu plate, environmentally protected with silicone gel and mounted in a plastic package with heavy screw terminals. Each of the transistor chips and diode chips conducts up to 50 A current.

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

combination technologies
Combination Technologies
  • Multilayer thin film - on - multilayer ceramic

Fig. 8.24: High performance modules made in a combination of multilayer thin film and multi layer ceramic technology: a): NEC Corporation computer SX-3 using flop TAB carrier on thin film and alumina based substrate. b): IBM Enterprise System/9000 packaging hierarchy using flip chip, polyimide/copper thin film on 63 layers glass ceramic substrate.

a)

b)

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

combination technologies continued
Combination Technologies, continued
  • Thin film - on - thick film (ame, Horten). Fig.8.25:

1. Alumina substrate.

2.a,b,c,d: Printed conductor on first layer.

3. Printed dielectric film.

4. Optional compensation printed in vias.

5.a,b,c: Printed conductor on second layer.

6. Glass based dielectric.

7. a,b,c,d: Tantalum nitride resistive layer.

8.a,b,c,d: Molybdenum diffusion barrier.

9.a,b,c: Thin film gold lines.

10. Via hole between thin film and thick

film conductive layer.

11. Contact area in thick film. Gold-

platinum or gold-palladium.

12.a,b: Resistor in thin film made by

selective etching in thin film structure

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules

end of chapter 8 hybrid technology and multichip modules
End of Chapter 8:Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules
  • Important issues:
    • Thick film technology:
      • Understand the basic material considerations:
        • Substrate materials:
        • Thick film pastes
      • Understand the basic manufacturing steps:
        • Process flow diagrams from printing to final test
          • Chip-and-wire or SMD component assembly
      • Distinguish between High Temperature and Polymer Thick Film Technologies
    • Thin Film Technology
      • Understand the basic material considerations:
        • Substrates: Ceramic, glass or silicon
        • Thin film conductors, resistors and dielectrics
      • Understand the basic manufacturing steps:
        • Process flow diagrams from deposition to final test
    • Hybrid Multichip Modules
      • MCM-D and MCM-C: Basic process steps
    • Combination technologies
        • Applications with special requirements
        • Cost versus performance optimisation or compromise
  • Questions and discussions?

Electronic Pack….. Chapter 8: Hybrid Technology and Multichip Modules