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Break-Out Session Probation Part II. Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision. American Probation and Parole Association Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology: A User’s Guide, 2nd Edition

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Break-Out Session Probation Part II


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Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision

American Probation and Parole Association

  • Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology: A User’s Guide, 2nd Edition
  • Sex Offender Community Based Supervision: Case Management Strategies and Tools
evidence based electronic monitoring of sex offenders cont
Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders [cont.]
  • Technology
      • Rapidly evolving
      • Legislation = active GPS
  • Technology offers one more tool
      • Combined with others
      • Means to end = structured containment
      • Not the end
  • Provides WINDOW into offender’s life
evidence based electronic monitoring of sex offenders cont4
Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders [cont.]
  • Many electronic tools for sex offenders
  • Technology
    • Radio frequency
    • Location tracking
    • Computer monitoring and forensics
    • Crime and GPS data integration
    • Polygraph
    • Others
radio frequency cont
Radio Frequency [cont.]
  • Home arrest
  • Curfew monitoring
  • Judge Love (Albuquerque, NM)
  • 1983
    • By 1990 in 50 states
    • Several countries
  • Repairs
  • False positives of violations
radio frequency cont8
Radio Frequency [cont.]
  • Drive-by units
  • Random calling
    • Identity verification
    • Slow scan photos
    • Electronic voice analysis
    • Remote alcohol detection (late 1980s)
location tracking cont
Late 1990s

Cellular Technology

24 Satellites

U.S. Department of Defense

Active and Passive

Exclusion Zones

Workload Differences

Liability

Legislation

Electronic Alibi

Location Tracking [cont.]
where s the evidence
Where’s the Evidence?
  • Does electronic monitoring work?
  • Does electronic monitoring reduce recidivism?
  • Does electronic monitoring improve case management?
  • How do we know?
where s the evidence cont
Where’s the Evidence? [cont.]
  • Little research - weak methodologies
  • Mixed results
    • Better for some populations
    • Differences across types of offenders
  • What is purpose of electronic monitoring?
    • Punishment?
    • Accountability?
    • Behavior change?
where s the evidence cont16
Where’s the Evidence? [cont.]
  • Not a FIX
    • Electronic Monitoring does not replace OFFICER
    • ONE Tool
      • Incorporated with other TOOLS
      • Create highly structured CONTAINMENT
evidence cont
Evidence [cont.]
  • Finn and Muirhead Steves (2002)
    • High-risk male parolees
    • Electronic monitoring showed no impact after four years
    • Sex offenders on electronic monitoring
      • Less likely to return to prison
      • Longer survival in community
evidence cont18
Evidence [cont.]
  • Bonta, Wallace-Capretta, & Rooney (2000)
    • Electronic Monitoring + Treatment
    • LOWER recidivism for high-risk
    • No effect on lower risk
      • Match offender to interventions
      • Low-risk in high-risk setting
      • More recidivism
evidence cont19
Evidence [cont.]
  • Padgett, Bales, & Blomberg
    • 75,661 (RF and GPS)
  • Electronic monitoring of offenders in the community may prove an effective public safety alternative to prison
evidence cont20
Evidence [cont.]
  • Revocation for technical violation
    • RF = 95.7% less likely
    • GPS = 90.2% less likely
    • SO = slightly less likely
  • Absconding
    • RF = 91.2% less likely
    • GPS = 90.2% less likely
    • SO = 42% less likely
evidence cont21
Evidence [cont.]
  • Revocation for new crime
    • RF = 95% less likely
    • GPS = 95% less likely
    • SO = 44.8% less likely
implications cont
Implications [cont.]
  • Consider workload
    • Repairs and malfunctions
    • Responding to alerts
  • Consider liability
    • Active GPS
    • Constant information
    • Must process information
implications cont24
Implications [cont.]
  • Consider offender type
    • Location tracking = high-risk sex offender
    • Curfew monitoring = lower-risk offenders
  • Consider cost
    • RF = $1.97
    • Active GPS = $8.97
    • Prison = $51.22
implications cont25
Implications [cont.]
  • Improve performance
    • Short-term management
    • Treatment completion
  • No behavior change
    • Lack long-term
    • Lack cognitive-behavioral adjustment
implications cont26
Implications [cont.]
  • Integrate TOOLS
    • Not a panacea
    • Highly structured = external control
      • Containment of offender’s life
    • Overall strategy of ACCOUNTABILITY
  • Legislation
    • Mandating active GPS
evidence based electronic monitoring of sex offenders
Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders

Contact Information:

Matthew T. DeMichele

Research Associate

American Probation and Parole Association

c/o The Council of State Governments

2760 Research Park Drive

Lexington, Kentucky 40578-1910

859-244-8123 (phone)

859-244-8001 (fax)

mdemichele@csg.org